Rubidium dating

Rubidium-Strontium dating: The nuclide rubidium-87 decays, with a half life of 48.8 billion years, to strontium-87. Strontium-87 is a stable element; it does not undergo further radioactive decay. (Do not confuse with the highly radioactive isotope, strontium-90.) Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of several nuclides, including the stable ... Dating - Dating - Rubidium–strontium method: The radioactive decay of rubidium-87 (87Rb) to strontium-87 (87Sr) was the first widely used dating system that utilized the isochron method. Rubidium is a relatively abundant trace element in Earth’s crust and can be found in many common rock-forming minerals in which it substitutes for the major element potassium. Rubidium-strontium dating doesn’t always agree with other dating methods. Some of the world’s best scientists computed the age of the Apollo 11 moon rocks 116 times using methods other than rubidium-strontium isochron dating. Of those 116 dates, only 10 of them fall in the isochron range of 4.3 to 4.56 billion years, and 106 don’t. Abstract. That rubidium is naturally radioactive was shown in 1906 by N. R. Campbell and A. Wood, but it was not until 1937 that rubidium-87 was identified as the relevant radioisotope. 1–3 Otto Hahn, with E. Walling, a year later discussed the possibility of dating rubidium-bearing minerals through the decay of 87 Rb to 87 Sr and by 1943 the first age determination had been made by Hahn et ... The Rubidium-Strontium Dating Method www.creation.com Page 3 87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary Average 28,429 Maximum 91,957 Minimum 3,257 Difference 88,700 Table 5 There is almost a 90 billion years difference between the oldest and youngest dates. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are. 87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages Age Age The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique that geologists use to determine the age of rocks.. Development of this process was aided by Fritz Strassmann, who later moved onto discovering nuclear fission with Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner.. The utility of the rubidium-strontium isotope system results from the fact that 87 Rb decays to 87 Sr. Different minerals in a ... Rb–Sr dating is based on the radioactive decay of the isotope Rb-87 (that today accounts for ~28 % of all rubidium) to Sr-87 (~7 % of all strontium, Table 1) by beta decay, i.e., the emission of an electron. Rb-87 decays to Sr-87 with a half-life of approximately 49 billion years. rubidium—strontium dating A radiometric dating method based on the radioactive decay of 87 Rb to 87 Sr. Rubidium has two isotopes (85 Rb 72.15%, 87 Rb 27.85%), but only 87 Rb is radioactive. 87 Rb disintegrates in a single step to 87 Sr by the emission of a low-energy beta particle (see BETA DECAY).Unfortunately this low-energy disintegration makes it very difficult to assess the half-life ... Rubidium oscillators are the lowest priced members of the atomic oscillator family. They operate at 6,834,682,608 Hz, the resonance frequency of the rubidium atom (87 Rb), and use the rubidium frequency to control the frequency of a quartz oscillator. A microwave signal derived from the crystal oscillator is applied to the 87 Rb vapor within a cell, forcing the atoms into a particular energy ... Rubidium-strontium dating, method of estimating the age of rocks, minerals, and meteorites from measurements of the amount of the stable isotope strontium-87 formed by the decay of the unstable isotope rubidium-87 that was present in the rock at the time of its formation. Rubidium-87 comprises 27.85 percent of the total atomic abundance of rubidium, and of the four isotopes of strontium, only ...

Because None Of Us Have Ever Read Creationist Radioisotope Dating Arguments [/s]

2020.08.29 21:36 Dzugavili Because None Of Us Have Ever Read Creationist Radioisotope Dating Arguments [/s]

Footballthoughts has posted a brief review of creationist arguments regarding radioisotope dating. He thinks that our rejection of their arguments is because we simply haven't read them.
Strangely, it's the exact opposite problem: Football hasn't read the papers these claims are citing. If he had, he might figure out that a few of these articles are just bullshit, as it is simply creationist researchers misapplying scientific principles to get the outcomes they want. The only thing they prove in the end is that they don't understand the science. Or simply don't want to, because it won't tell them what they want.
Let's go strip the articles of their examples:
From radioactive-dating-anomalies:
That lava is known to be relatively young, possibly erupted within historical times,4 yet a rubidium-strontium straight-line isochron gave an age of 773 million years. Does this worry these scientists? No.
The lava isn't a valid candidate for this type of dating:
  • The system must have remained closed to Rb and Sr diffusion from the time at which the rock formed or fell below the closure temperature (generally considered to be 650 °C);
  • The minerals which are taken from a rock to construct an isochron must have formed in chemical equilibrium with one another or in the case of sediments, be deposited at the same time;
  • The rock must not have undergone any metasomatism which could have disturbed the Rb-Sr system either thermally or chemically
I don't believe the sample passes any of these criteria, making it an absolutely inappropriate sample for dating. Presenting it as accurate is intellectual fraud.
From his own post on C14 in diamonds:
yadda yadda yadda C14 in diamonds
Honestly, we've all read this one before and know all the problems.
  1. Carbon dating is for biological materials which have engaged in exchange with atmospheric C14 content. Diamonds being minerals deep underground do not participate in this cycle and thus cannot be dated by the same methodology.
  2. There is still neutron flux underground where C14 can be generated in carbon. Uranium and coal often occur together, which could lead to enrichment of C14 content.
  3. He's literally citing a paper about machine background error, and the diamonds were very likely depleted.
So, when he says:
Hopefully this can help educate them, as well as provide a good list of resources for Creationists who want them.
It just makes me laugh. Educate us? We've had to educate your kind multiple times in the past year. There must be a gasleak in there, because they keep repeating themselves, over and over again.
submitted by Dzugavili to DebateEvolution [link] [comments]


2020.07.09 07:06 Covert_Cuttlefish Strontium Ratio Variation in Marine Carbonates

Our dear friend SaggysHealthAlt posted an article titled Strontium Ratio Variation in Marine Carbonates from IRC at /creation. The paper states:
In 1948, geologist F. E. Wickman predicted that the decay of 87Rb (a rubidium isotope) in the earth’s crust and mantle would be reflected in a related increase in the 87 S^ 86Sr (two strontium isotopes) in seawater as well as in strontium-bearing marine precipitates.
Now of course geologists cannot go back in time to test the sea water (shout out to my boy Paul Price who vehemently argues we can’t use the past to test anything, and also argues a single geological formation falsifies long ages, pick one dude) so they had to use marine precipitates (calcite) instead. When precipitation occurs the ratio between 87 S^ 86Sr in the calcite is the same in the both the water and precipitate, so marine carbonates are a near perfect proxy for 87 S^ 86Sr in sea water assuming the rocks have not undergone alteration post diagenesis. Alteration (specifically recrystallization) results in a lower SCa ratio in the recrystallization calcite compared to biogenic calcite, and is detectable using spectrometry. Unfortunately for Wickman analysis of 87 S^ 86Sr doesn’t show an increase over the past ~550ma, but an erratic line appears as the ratio is graphed.
ICR asks five questions about the studies it pulled the graphs from.
How is it possible for the relative natural abundance of 87Sr and 86Sr to be virtually the same today as it was 560 million years ago? If the only source of 87Sr in the crust and thus in seawater is the decay of 87Rb, shouldn’t the ratio of 87S86Sr have steadily increased over a half-billion-year-plus timespan?
This assumes creationists misunderstanding of geological uniformitarianism, that is everything happens slowly. Not only does this misconstrue Lyell’s work, it also doesn’t reflect modern geology. We know that rates and processes change over time.
The primary control on the 87 S^ 86Sr ratio is the amount of continental runoff. Hydrothermal input from mid-Atlantic ridges and dissolution of sea floor carbonates also play a roll, however the latter is primarily a buffer and realistically is not a major factor. There are three primary models, glacial, uplift, and hydrothermal that attempt to explain the observed curve (let’s be honest, squiggle). I’ll keep things short and sweet, but if you’re interested Mead, G. A., & Hodell, D. A. 1995 has a good breakdown of the models.
Glacial: increased runoff due to glaciers will increase the strontium ratio, however this is problematic as rock with a high Sr ratio is more competent (harder to erode) and metamorphism would be required to sufficiently increase the Sr ratio.
Uplift: The Himalayan mountain system contains both the metamorphism and mass wasting required to increase the SR ratio; however, uplift began too late to be the only factor.
Hydrothermal: At mid oceanic ridges the strontium ratio in sea water matches MORBs (mid ocean ridge basalts). MORBs have a lower ratio than sea water so increased hydrothermal activity will depress the ratio. Currently the model doesn’t mirror the squiggle, but as of 1995 (Probably older than half the people reading this, but it’s enough to debunk the article) only regional studies have been done, more global work is needed. I’m not up to date with the literature so maybe this has been resolved, if not low oil prices will limit the ability to collect new samples.
So, we can see there are hypothesis of why squiggle exists, however more work is clearly needed.
There is no good reason to expect the ratio in the ocean to match the ratio in rocks.
Why do Burke and his co-authors throw away similar-aged samples with low strontium content or high insoluble content in order to obtain tighter clustering of the 87S86Sr ratio?
From Burke’s paper:
We have found empirically that tighter clustering of 87 S 86 Sr values among coeval Mesozoic and Paleozoic samples is achieved when samples with low strontium contents or high insoluble residues are eliminated. Thus, our Mesozoic and Paleozoic data are limited to samples that contain at least 200 ppm Sr and not more than 10% dilute acid insoluble residue… The probable explanation for the improved clustering is that the restriction decreases the fraction of samples that have not retained the marine 87 S 86 Sr value characteristic of their time of deposition. (my emphasis)
They wanted their graph to be tighter, and the best way to achieve this was to limit the number of diagenetically altered samples in their dataset which would not have reflected the original marine isotopic signature. Notably the author of the creationist paper didn’t accuse the authors of the more recent work of messing with the data, and their graphs showed the same trend.
  1. Do the dramatic gyrations of the 87 Sr / 86 Sr ratio better fit catastrophic mixing over a much shorter time interval?
I assume that’s a rhetorical question? The resident time of 87 Sr / 86 Sr in the ocean is 2.5 million years, and there are good controls of the ages of the rocks the samples came from. More on that later.
The maximum value that the seawater 87 Sr / 86 ratio can reach in this model is 0.720 if contributions only come from sialic (crustal) rocks. Yet, values of 0.748 and 0.930 are observed in modern isochrons constructed from crustal rocks.8,9
Austin and Snelling should publish their work in peer reviewed journals rather than ICR if that’s the case. After all, Snelling doesn’t have the best track record regarding isochrons. I’m sure the scientific community would be interested to know if there’s actually a problem here.
Finally, stratigraphic dating was apparently used to establish the time frame during which each group of marine deposits was set down. How do we know that a certain rock layer was laid down 100 million years ago? We’re told we “know” how old the rock layer is because of the fossils it contains, and we “know” how old the marine deposits are because of the rock layer they occur in. This is circular reasoning at its clearest and not acceptable science.
Nicholas Steno (1638-1686) would like a world with the author of the paper. The primary method of dating the rocks used in this study were magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy (forams). I discussed the horseshit argument of circular reasoning here. Everything in the post is first year geology, this is clear give away nothing in the article should be taken seriously. Once again, ICR “peer review” lets us down. Don’t try to pass that off as “it’s a layman article bro”; this will be reaching a much wider audience of uninformed people, it’s arguably more important to be as accurate as possible.
The creationist article ends by repeating that the squiggle could be formed by catastrophic mixing of waters. Of course, they don’t provide an evidence or models explaining how cataclysmic event could happen. Finally, they say that prior to 560ma the Sr curve was always increasing without providing a source for the claim.
We have a squiggly 87 Sr / 86 line between 560ma and today, this is a fact. The question is HOW. geologist have some good ideas, but more work is needed. Creationists are lying and saying a cataclysmic event is needed to explain the idea. Yet they refuse to give a mechanism (how) that cataclysm occurred. Thanks for the Biblical fiction Cupps, I'd file this along side the Expanse, but it's not worth the shelf space.
Saggy, I’m certainly not suggesting geologists fully understand the controls on the Sr ratio, but this article is nothing more than questions the author can find with google and empty assertions. This seems to be a common theme in creationists papers. Let me know when you want to debate geology on discord or zoom, we don't have to do it on reddit.
inb4 “lol nice encyclopedia, if you have to refute me that just means I’m right.”
submitted by Covert_Cuttlefish to DebateEvolution [link] [comments]


2020.06.04 16:49 dedpotatos [Event] Enhanced Gravimetric Interferometers


Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Kings College London are working together to conduct a study of new hi-power laser based gravimetric sensors. The goal is to develop a more accurate interferometer for be incorporated into gravimetric systems. The new EGI system will be
The experiment will take an Astra Gemini based dual beam Titanium sapphire 0.5PW laser system, firing through a free fall rubidium 85 beam in a vacuum atmosphere to detect subatomic changes. The concept is very similar to the interferometers developed by Imperial College London in a similar project, but instead uses a much more powerful linear laser array and a more advanced secondary cooling system. The whole system will be cooled to exactly 850mK using a dilution refrigerator to ensure as accurate a result as possible. The Astra Gemini is the most power laser ever used in an interferometer, and is hoped to make this the most reliable and accurate interferometer built to date, allowing for a maximum potential accuracy of 7e-13m/s^2.
The project budget is $300,000,000 USD and will take a year to construct, allowing experimentation to begin over the following years to test accuracy and potential uses. Funding is split between the STFC, and the MoD.
submitted by dedpotatos to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2019.11.14 19:39 Sparklingkid How old is the Earth?

Where’s the supposed evidence that the earth is 4½ billion years old? It’s not on earth at all!

If you ask this question of most scientifically literate people, they will answer that the earth is about 4½ billion years old. But if you ask biblically literate people, many will answer that it is little more than 6,000 years old. Why the huge difference? We look at the same world but come to different conclusions because our world views are different.
To fully understand the issue, we must look beyond this earth. Literally. Let me explain.

The Biblical Date
How do we arrive at the biblical date? The genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 make it clear that Abraham lived about 2,000 years after the creation. And we know from chronologies found elsewhere in the Bible that Abraham lived about 2,000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Furthermore, we know that Jesus’ ministry was about 2,000 years ago. Summing these lengths of time, we get about 6,000 years (technically just a little more).

What Most Scientists Think
How do many scientists arrive at the age of 4½ billion years? They rely on radiometric dating, though the story is a bit more complicated than it sounds. Some rocks contain trace amounts of radioactive atoms. Those radioactive atoms decay into stable atoms over time. By knowing the decay rate and measuring the amount of both kinds of atoms in a rock, scientists can compute the amount of time it took to produce the stable atoms.
Some assumptions are involved, however. Were some of the stable atoms present in the rock to begin with? Did some of either type of atom leave or enter the rock during the time being measured for decay? To make matters worse, measuring the age of a rock by different kinds of radioactive atoms (such as uranium or rubidium) often yields very different ages. There are many examples of such discordant ages.
But even if we accept these ages as correct, there are many other assumptions that cause even more problems. You see, we never find rocks on earth that date back 4½ billion years. The earth is a very dynamic place, with volcanic eruptions and tectonic plate movements that constantly recycle old rocks into new rocks. When rocks are recycled this way, it is believed that their radiometric dates are reset.
So we wouldn’t expect to find the original “primordial” rocks on earth. Instead, scientists must look to other bodies in the solar system that are less active geologically. The search for primordial rocks was one of the scientific reasons we sent men to the moon a half-century ago. Scientists thought that since the moon has far less geological activity than the earth, its rocks would be older.
Indeed, the moon’s rocks generally yield old radiometric dates, but even they don’t yield dates of 4½ billion years. Why?
While the moon is far less active than the earth, that hasn’t always been the case. Most scientists think that the moon was very active early in its history. So while moon rocks have relatively old radiometric dates, they aren’t primordial either. To find truly primordial rocks, planetary scientists think they must look at meteorites, debris that has fallen onto the earth’s surface from somewhere else in the solar system. The 4½-billion-year age of the earth comes from radiometric dating of meteorites.
How can they know these are the earliest rocks? They have a theory that the whole solar system formed at the same time, around 4½ billion years ago. This means the sun and planets would be about the same age. Material that didn’t become part of the sun supposedly coalesced into larger and larger pieces, eventually forming planets and their satellites, or moons. But many of the pieces never formed into planets or satellites. Fragments of these pieces are thought to be the origin of meteorites. Since meteorites didn’t form into planets, they must have avoided the geological process that reset radiometric ages on earth. This is particularly true of the carbonaceous chondrites.
But note all the unproven assumptions. Evolutionary assumptions at that.

Source: https://answersingenesis.org/answers/
submitted by Sparklingkid to u/Sparklingkid [link] [comments]


2019.08.19 03:07 yossipossi SCP-0001: Meta Ike Proposal

Item Number: SCP-0001
The Solution
Object Class: Thaumiel/Apollyon
If the object class didn’t make it apparent enough, this is about to get really, really weird.
Jack Ike’s works can be incredibly complex, intuitive, and sometimes can get a bit too carried away. However, a Jack Ike 0001 proposal is not only all of those things, but more. A number of prolific authors have downvoted the piece (as well as upvoted), which is understandable — it took me over seven reads of this article to even get an idea what was going on. But now, as I write this, I think I finally understand enough to convey just how well-nuanced this SCP is, and why it should stay on the mainsite.
If you don’t want to go through the entire article and extrapolate it alongside me, there will be a TL;DR at the end for you to get a quick runthrough of it.
So, my fellow scholars, electrocute the bubbling mass of stars, enlighten a crab with toothbrushes, but notwithstanding the quadrupeds, and let’s get right into it!
I think the best way we can introduce this article is by displaying the introduction to the article itself:
Item #: SCP-0001
Object Class: Thaumiel/Apollyon
Special Containment Procedures: SCP-0001 cannot and should not be contained by the Foundation.
What a start, huh? Let’s dissect this.
The Item Number is SCP-0001. Pretty standard for an SCP-001 proposal, except for the fact that it has three zeros instead of two. This gives us an idea that this is happening in a later point of the Foundation canon, as there are four digits instead of three.
The object class is not only Thaumiel, but also Apollyon. For those unacquainted, Thaumiel means that an object is beneficial to the Foundation and counteracts the effects of other dangerous anomalies; Apollyon being an object which cannot be contained and will destroy everything. How can this object be both at once?
The Special Containment Procedures seem to align with the object class. It can’t be contained, but it shouldn’t be contained, either.
Onto the description, which is surprisingly short.
We’re introduced to three objects: SCP-0001 itself, SCP-0001-Α (Alpha), and SCP-0001-Ω (Omega), though we only get details of SCP-0001 now. SCP-0001 is described as a “autonomous biomechanical device produced by SCP-0001-Α and SCP-0001-Ω during Project Phantasos,” meaning it’s a machine with organic and metallic parts that functions without human interaction. SCP-0001 is “semi-sapient,” and hosts a consciousness is a perpetual state of REM sleep, the stage of sleep responsible for dreams.
Initially, the device was supposed to be fully autonomous (“self-maintaining, self-sustaining and self-preserving”) only when exposed directly to sunlight, but since SCP-0001 was relocated to the “Oneiroi Collective,” it’s completely autonomous — even in absolute darkness. In addition, it’s invincible.
SCP-0001 dreams, and these dreams function as a “simulated reality” centered around a narrative produced during this previously-mentioned “Project Phantasos.” However, because of how dreams work, the simulated reality has become distorted, though the main narrative hasn’t been heavily damaged and still technically works. In addition, people inside this reality are oblivious to these self-contradictions and fluctuating details.
Some more observant readers might be formulating what’s going on already, but stick with me. It’ll start getting complicated in just a bit.
The first addendum is title “FILE: Project Phantasos Proposal [.pdf].” Presumably, we’ll learn more about the project. However, as soon as we get into this, it becomes… weird.
Project Date: 23/94/0001
Proposal Statement:
To create an anomalous device beneficial to the Foundation.
Research Team Lead: Senior Researcher ████ ███
Assistant Leads: Senior Researcher John Smith, Senior Researcher Mary Lou, Senior Researcher Xiao Hua, Senior Researcher James Smith, Senior Researcher Ivan Ivanov
Now, there’s a bit to unpack here.
  • The project date is seemingly nonsensical, as all the dates don’t add up and “0001” isn’t quite a year we can believe this is taking place in.
  • The Proposal Statement is extremely vague, and doesn’t tell us much of, well, anything.
  • The Team Lead is redacted. He’s going to be very important later on.
We have a section labeled Requested Resources now, which lists Kate McTiriss’s Proposal and SCP-826. Kate McTiriss’s Proposal is denied, but SCP-826 is presumably accepted. Both the objects have something in common: making fiction become real. Both of these are part of the “Erebus Division’s final intended product.”
Then we get three documents: the first containing resources for the Erebus Division, the second (mostly) containing resources for the Pasithea Division, and the last containing resources for the Hypnos Division. Their names are related to the Greek gods of darkness/shadows, hallucinations/altered mind states, and sleep, respectively. This should give us a vague idea about what each division does.
The first page wants access to the documents from Project “Twins of God” from Ouroboros Part I (which is denied), access to “the soul” of Project Kallinikos from SCP-2140, and the documents for building Scantron Reality Anchors, which stabilize reality and prevent reality benders from doing their shit. Presumably, they want the documents from Twins of God to utilize The Children’s abilities, but we can’t be sure.
The second document starts off with one more request from the Erebus Division, which is for SCP-140, a book that, when exposed to blood, retroactively alters the past and records it down, moving the “Daevite Empire” further along the timeline and closer to the modern day. If the Erebus Division is trying to alter reality with fiction, this book would be useful for affecting the past. The next two objects are requested by the Pasithea Division: SCP-217, and SCP-003-1. They explicitly request SCP-217, which is a virus that converts organic material into mechanical parts, and documentation for SCP-003, a motherboard made of flesh that can grow exponentially when cold.
Then, finally, we reach the third document, requests for the Hypnos Division. The first request, however, is for an item to be kept far from SCP-0001: SCP-2245. People sleeping in the vicinity of SCP-2245 don’t experience dreams, and if exposed to SCP-0001, could cause “an immediate ZK-Class scenario” — the end of reality. The justification for keeping the anomaly away is locked behind a “Basilisk-category Amnestic Lock.” Weird.
Hypnos Team also requests SCP-2028 (snow globes which make nightmares real) for obvious reasons, and MTF Omicron-Rho (“The Dream Team”) for advice and assistance (since they’re a task force which operate in dreams). There are also additional requests for the project, including the use of SCP-914 for material refinement, at least 300 D-Class, resources to construct components of SCP-0001, and access to some documents of projects, one of which is Project Olympia. Project Olympia, for those not acquainted with it, is a project “[t]o successfully create an artificial humanoid through the use of several SCPs, and use it to the benefit of the Foundation.”
Observant readers will notice that hidden in the background of the request page there is… binary code? Translating it doesn’t make much sense either:
The Foundation is a clandestine collective operating to maintain normalcy. The Foundation secures paranormal phenomena to prevent them from being obtained by rival groups or society at large.
The Foundation contains paranormal phenomena to prevent their influence from spreading. The Foundation protects humanity from paranormal phenomena and their effects until they can be rationally understood. Paranormal phenomena are a threat to normalcy and society at large.
Odd.
There’s one more document: a cut-off section detailing the operations of each Division. Unfortunately, only the Erebus and part of the Pasithea Division is available for us to read. But that should give us a clue what’s going on, right?
Nope.
Erebus Division will research methods of developing an interactive anomaly capable of selling five kilograms of rubidium to a lamenting oak tree.
If you thought you suffered a stroke in the middle of reading that, you didn’t, because you read that correctly. Something is very wrong.
Our suspicions are confirmed, though: the Erebus Division is trying to alter reality with anomalies. They also have access to SCP-038, the cloning tree, to clone anomalies, as well as SRAs and “Xyank/Anastasakos Constant Temporal Sinks” (basically SRAs for time) for a purpose obscured by more gibberish phrases. Unlimited access has been granted to them, including a task force to ensure confidentiality.
The Pasithea Division is responsible for constructing two devices which are organic in nature, but will eventually require mechanical components. They also have access to SCP-890, a surgeon who can operate on metal and turn it into living tissue, in order to make the devices more biological, and “potentially improve their recursive isolation.”
What are these devices? Why, SCP-0001-Alpha and SCP-0001-Omega, of course! Hope you haven’t forgotten about them, because they’re about to play a very important role.
The next addendum is “FILE: Personal Notes – Mary Lou [.docx].” Mary Lou is one of the Assistant Leads for the project mentioned earlier, so let’s learn more about what she’s thinking.
The first journal entry is just her telling us that the O5 have approved of the project, and they’re building the facility.
The next entry starts picking up, and says that all tests of the devices have failed in one way or another. Here’s the results listed:
Sub-Alpha 1 and Sub-Omega 1 overloaded upon activation. Sub-Alpha 2 collapsed itself, but Sub-Omega 2 did not receive the appropriate transmission. Sub-Alpha 3 was absorbed by Sub-Omega 3 before it initialised its collapse.
Now, since they’re called “sub”s, we can assume they’re only tests, not the full thing. So what do we gain from this?
  1. SCP-0001-Alpha can “collapse” things, apparently including itself as well.
  2. SCP-0001-Alpha can transmit things to SCP-0001-Omega.
  3. SCP-0001-Alpha can be “absorbed” by SCP-0001-Omega.
  4. All of the above are intentional, but haven’t been executed correctly, thus resulting in the failures.
We also learn that Mary works in the Erebus Division, and they sent requests to the Pasithea Division for some non-biological replacements to continue testing.
Next entry informs us that the collapse function works properly, and although the transmitted files are disorganized, test subjects have been identified. Apparently, the “collapse” program does something to the test subjects and transmits information about them to SCP-0001-Omega. The device, whatever it does, works. There’s also no need for a reversal process to this apparently, since “[i]f the final product of Project Phantasos is initialised, attempted reversal is irrelevant.” Keep this in mind.
Next entry is a bit off. Since update 14.3, the site’s been experiencing issues relating to “loss,” such as deleted documents, missing files, and medical conditions become more frequent. The Hypnos Division is trying to… something. It’s cut off with more gibberish phrases.
As it turns out, the SCP-0001-Alpha and -Omega replicas are still operating at minimum capacity without staff knowledge. SCP-0001-Alpha has been “collapsing” small items and transferring their information to SCP-0001-Omega. To make things even more interesting, SCP-0001 tells the staff that if they remove SCP-0001-Alpha’s ability to “collapse,” it’ll render the device inert — so they sever the connection between the two devices instead.
Wait, SCP-0001 doesn’t exist yet, and this shouldn’t be possible. We’ll have to keep pushing forward.
In the final entry for this addendum, we’re introduced to a nonsensical-looking equation, which is apparently paraphysical in nature. What’s important is the fact that SCP-0001-Omega couldn’t have had this equation in its storage if it wasn’t connected to SCP-0001-Alpha still. As the entry describes it, “Device Alpha is the component intended to innovate, whereas Device Omega exclusively stores and processes data.” If SCP-0001-Omega didn’t have the equation in it’s code before, then it must have been given it by SCP-0001-Alpha.
As it turned out, the mechanical replica of SCP-0001-Alpha has been converted partially to organic material in the past, and somehow used this to connect to SCP-0001-Omega, which has now also become partially biological. Somehow, -Alpha updated itself to change the “absorption program into a mutual-update program,” which allowed -Omega to receive biological conversion from -Alpha. The anomalies have gained unforeseen properties.
Like responsible scientists, they disconnect all devices, not only the replicas. But this isn’t the end for -Alpha and -Omega, as we shall soon see.
The third addendum is titled “FILE: Personal Notes - Ivan Ivanov [.docx],” who also happens to be an assistant lead. However, this time we’re seeing from the Pasithea Division’s perspective.
We continue where we left off — devices have been disconnected, but research moves forward. The issue is, the power goes out occasionally, even though the generators are running at full capacity, and despite all the replicas and main machines being disconnected, personnel over at the Erebus Division are still experiencing symptoms related to the replicas being online. What gives?
As it turns out, the real SCP-0001-Alpha and SCP-0001-Omega prototypes have reprogrammed themselves too, and are now capable of collecting energy from their surroundings, the scope of which is entirely unknown. The scientists have tried to remove the code, but the code “falls out of their brains and back onto the screen” as soon as they do, whatever that means.
They can’t stop this thing.
In the end, the scientists relent, hooking up the prototypes to the main power supply. However, they also set a perimeter of Scantron Reality Anchors around the machine in order to prevent it from fucking with reality more.
Next log doesn’t go as planned. As it turns out, a researcher attempts to destroy the machine, and despite the SRAs, he gets “collapsed.” When the SRAs were examined, it turns out that all of them fried. Why? SCP-0001-Alpha, unfortunately, has learnt how to utilize “Akiva Radiation” to destroy objects, allowing it to use its “collapse” ability. For those unaware, Akiva Radiation is a fictional kind of radiation used in a number of other articles.
The mobile task force on-site declares that the project is to be discontinued. There’s nothing that can be done anymore — the machine’s in control now.
The next entry informs us that any time someone tries to stop the machine, a seemingly random event prevents them from doing so — -Alpha has learnt to use a probabilistic anomaly, which was not part of the original design. In addition, -Alpha and -Omega are “transcending recursion to self-complete themselves.” What this means is unclear, but we can assume that means the creation of SCP-0001.
Onto the final entry.
The device has completed, and no real changes have been observed. The Overseer Council is deciding whether or not to allow SCP-0001 to continue, and it looks like they will — the writer comments that SCP-0001 probably isn’t influencing the vote, “because it smells like it’s true.”
He comments that Erebus determined that, despite the power of SCP-0001, it hasn’t touched its “core tenets,” probably because the core tenets say that it can’t alter them. Because of this, despite whatever SCP-0001 may do, it can’t change some fundamental rules and goals, and therefore will still achieve its primary function — whatever that may be is.
To recap: SCP-0001-Alpha and SCP-0001-Omega began to run despite being disconnected, and have developed anomalous properties which allow them to run themselves and prevent their destruction.
Onto the next section.
The fourth addendum is titled “FILE: Project Phantasos E-Mails [.pst].” Now we’re reading regular ol’ emails.
The first email is from Xiao Hua, another project lead, to all assistant leads. It describes a proposal — seemingly while SCP-0001-Alpha and -Omega were being built — for how the two components should interact. I’ll quote it:
Upon initialisation of the collapse program, Device Alpha will exclude Device Omega, transmitting the created information to the databanks of Device Omega. Once Device Alpha determines there is nothing remaining for it to collapse, it will prompt Device Omega, and run a timer program that ensures the two devices are synchronised. When confirmed, Device Omega will initiate its absorption program at the same time Device Alpha initiates a collapse of Device Omega.
So, TL;DR, -Alpha will “collapse” literally everything except -Omega, in which then -Alpha will “collapse” -Omega while -Omega “absorbs” -Alpha. We’re not sure what this means, but it’s possible this is the “transcending recursion” from earlier.
Next email is from Mary Lou, and she says that anyone experiencing specific symptoms, such as lethargy, slurred speech, amnesia, or stroke should contact a medical wing. However, there’s a quick “remember me” listed among the symptoms. We’ll see that phrase again soon.
The next email is from the Mobile Task Force, stating that Lou has been removed from the project and the position is being reassigned. There’s also some binary in the background of the previous two messages which state:
The device cannot forget itself. The device cannot forget its core tenets. The device cannot alter its core tenets. The device cannot allow itself to be harmed. The device cannot allow itself to be altered. The device cannot forget humanity. The device cannot forget the Foundation. The device cannot forget Earth. The device cannot forget [four blank unicode characters, space, three blank unicode characters]
These look a lot like a set of rules — or more specifically, core tenets. SCP-0001 can rewrite all of its contents, except for these things. If you recall earlier, there was a section defining the SCP Foundation written in binary, which is likely for the machine to know what “the Foundation” refers to.
Also, remember that pattern of four-three unicode characters.
The following email is from Area-0001 Administration to the Logistics Department asking for… children’s toys? And it’s a “kettle” level priority? Reality is coming apart.
The second-to-last email is from the head of the MTF, stating that the reactor was programmed to cause a meltdown in the near future, but there’s already an incident report about it written in past-tense.
The final email reads as follows:
TO: Foundation Staff (All)
FROM: High Command
RE: Global Shutdown.
CODE NAME: Lily has initiated.
Foundation personnel are discharged of all duties.
The Overseer Council thanks all Foundation personnel for their service.
Oh dear. That is not good.
For those unaware, CODE NAME: Lily is another SCP-001 proposal which states that, 24 hours prior to the death of all living organisms in the world, the world will become “beautiful.”
But, this feels kind of abrupt, right? Why is the world ending out of nowhere?
Well…
While SCP-0001 is Thaumiel, it’s also Apollyon.
The fifth addendum is titled “FILE: C:/StartupLog [.txt],” and we’re now getting some action.
It’s a text log on a computer prompt, displaying an event between the aforementioned “Senior Researcher ███” (the project lead), and a “Researcher Smith.” All of Researcher ███'s dialogue is “[DATA LOST]” for some reason, and it appears as though he’s panicking. Researcher Smith tries to calm him down, to no avail.
Researcher Smith tells ███ that whatever he’s trying to do is irrelevant, because of CODE NAME: Lily. ███ replies, followed by a sigh from Smith, and another response from ███. Smith says, “The blue USB drive in the drawer on the left-hand side made of custard,” and the sound of liquid sliding is heard. Smith says that trying to avert CODE NAME: Lily is impossible, and all attempts are futile. Presumably, ███ asks how to activate the machine regardless, and Smith tells him to “insert the USB drive into the portrait of Aristotle.”
███ begins to run, pauses, and then runs faster. Smith tells him to stop, but ███ doesn’t listen, and then tells him again that the efforts are futile. Smith says he refuses to allow ███ to spend his final moments like this, and—
< Rustle, metallic click, gunshot. Soft thud. >
Oh shit.
More lost words from ███, and a bunch of rapid keystrokes, followed by a single tap. There’s a message which reads “< Awakening. >” which links to an audio file of a machine starting up, and we get one final message from ███, this time intact enough for us to understand it.
Remember me.
...What the hell just happened?
Senior Researcher ███, it seems, was trying to stop CODE NAME: Lily by activating SCP-0001, inadvertently causing CODE NAME: Lily. Whoops.
SCP-0001 is now active, and it will begin to rewrite the universe. Let’s see what it plans on doing.
Let’s explore “FILE: CheckDDriveStatus [.exe].”
We have a computer prompt pop up, similar to the one of the previous files. This one is the SCP-0001 activation process.
SCP-0001 first checks its subprocesses, which include “SystemOriginGenerator” and “CheckDDriveStatus.” SystemOriginGenerator displays the SCP-0001 file, but lacking the addenda. It then checks the next sub-process, which… checks the sub-processes again. This displays the SCP-0001 file again (minus addenda) and activates checking the subprocesses again, and…
! RECURSIVE STACK OVERFLOW: ABORTING PROCESS
! RECURSIVE STACK OVERFLOW: ABORTING PROCESS
! RECURSIVE STACK OVERFLOW: ABORTING PROCESS
! RECURSIVE STACK OVERFLOW: ABORTING PROCESS ! STACK BUFFER OVERFLOW
Uh oh.
Something… unforeseen has happened. SCP-0001 seems to have encountered an error while attempting to “collapse” itself, and has aborted the process due to a “stack buffer overflow.” In Jack Ike’s own words, “it had to assess itself/the virtual itself, which contained the same/another reality, which also had itself/virtual self… ad infinitum.” Whoopsies.
So SCP-0001 has collapsed everything, including itself, and everything relating to it. What’s the final addendum about?
The final addendum is titled “FILE: •ÁçÞ‘¯¾ËÀ Ü@…ÏÎHÉôu - ████ ███ [.�4891�Üô#½ Ki]” — complete gibberish, except for a special combination of blackboxes, the Senior Researcher’s name.
We open the file and we’re greeted with an error titled “NULL REFERENCE EXCEPTION,” which is when a program tries to define a variable that doesn’t refer to any object. Underneath that... oh, what the fuck? There’s a bunch of SCP file code stacked on top of each other that eventually goes off the page, and seemingly random text that reads as follows:
Please state your full name, followed by your designation.
physics engine that you have released, which comes with a customisable demonstration
øvė it frõm the database myself. You will be dealt with.
What do you require the resources for?
What is the easiest way to hide the identity of SCP-001
just want to tell them? refer to containment procedures
abandon your assigned shifts. The world depends
12 12 12 12
Corpse of subject is irretrievable;
a man who sometimes exists greets a man who should no longer be.
There is nobody here by that name. Now go away.
Time had long since run out. There were no days, no hours, no minutes, no seconds.
I have a house to clean. I have a house to clean.
(For the record, the bold was in superscript and italics in subscript on the main wiki. I changed it because Reddit’s formatting is trash.)
The article ends on that note.
So what the fuck is going on here? What did SCP-0001 do, why is there random gibberish in the article, and what’s with the final addendum?
Let’s recap, and clarify some things along the way.
SCP-0001 is an anomalous consciousness which dreams, and the dreams are centered around a specific narrative the Foundation inputs. SCP-0001 was created by SCP-0001-Alpha and SCP-0001-Omega during Project Phantasos.
SCP-0001-Alpha is the thinking aspect of SCP-0001, while SCP-0001-Omega is the data storage aspect. SCP-0001-Alpha has the ability to “collapse” objects into data, then transfer it to SCP-0001-Omega. SCP-0001-Omega was designed to “absorb” SCP-0001-Alpha after -Alpha collapsed everything, including itself, and then apparently recreate the universe according to the aforementioned narrative.
During the creation of SCP-0001-Alpha and -Omega, something went wrong, and the machine began to act on its own. The Foundation tries to stop it, but realizes it can’t — however, they decide to let it do what it wants to do anyways, since the core tenets will ensure it will succeed in its original mission, whatever that may be.
The machine finishes itself, and reality begins to lose coherence as the dream logic of SCP-0001 begins to take over. We begin to receive strange messages (specifically “remember me”) and get a list of the core tenets. Finally, the O5 declare Lily’s Proposal has begun and the world is doomed.
Senior Researcher ████ ███ activates SCP-0001, and then says “remember me.” SCP-0001 then attempts to “collapse” everything, and succeeds, but suffers an error as it processes the information relating to collapsing itself, causing it to abort the process — only issue is that it can’t reverse the process, since there’s no reversal process built into it. This means it’s lost all the information about itself and things relating to it.
We end up with a stream-of-consciousness-like section where a “man who sometimes exists” greets a “man who should no longer be,” and the file ends.
Let’s start off with a simple question: why was SCP-0001 built to begin with? Well, that’s obvious. What would the Foundation do with an anomaly that could recreate reality along its own narrative? Why, exactly that. The Foundation can’t fight the Scarlet King, the anafabula, or anything else, so they make something that can.
A more complicated question is, what’s with the “remember me” stuff and how is Senior Researcher ████ ███ involved, despite being absent for a good chunk of the article? Well, to answer this, we’re going to have to look at the core tenets again:
The device cannot forget itself. The device cannot forget its core tenets. The device cannot alter its core tenets. The device cannot allow itself to be harmed. The device cannot allow itself to be altered. The device cannot forget humanity. The device cannot forget the Foundation. The device cannot forget Earth. The device cannot forget [four blank unicode characters, space, three blank unicode characters]
Focus on that last bit:
[four blank unicode characters, space, three blank unicode characters]
Seems rather reminiscent of the four-space-three blackboxes in our Senior Researcher’s name, right? That’s because it’s him — Senior Researcher ████ ███ is part of the core tenets, one of the things that SCP-0001 cannot forget, including itself, humanity, Earth, and the Foundation.
That begs the question, what happens when SCP-0001 corrupts all data about itself and details surrounding it? You see, SCP-0001 can’t forget about itself, since if it did, that would be an instant ZK-Class End of Reality Scenario. SCP-0001 also can’t forget about Senior Researcher ████ ███, presumably because he programmed that in himself. But that’s all that SCP-0001 knows about these two, that there exists SCP-0001 (itself) and a Senior Researcher with seven characters in his name that was involved in its creation, and said “remember me” shortly after the machine’s activation before being “collapsed” and apparently destroyed.
So SCP-0001 knows it exists, Senior Researcher ████ ███ exists, but has no details at all regarding its creation and Senior Researcher ████ ███’s involvement. This leads into our final question, and our final answer:
What in the goddamn fuck is going on in this article? And surprisingly, our answer lies in one of the first revelations one could have on this journey through SCP-0001’s file: SCP-0001 is writing this narrative.
Now, how does this solve anything? Well, let’s take what we know, and piece it together.
SCP-0001 lacks any information about its past or creation, and lacks information regarding Senior Researcher ████ ███, meaning the information no longer exists entirely; SCP-0001, otherwise, knows about everything else. So in order to justify its own existence and “remember” the Senior Researcher, SCP-0001 has to extrapolate from other data it has — keep this in mind. SCP-0001 begins to form a narrative centered around its creation to fill in the gaps, and due to its properties, retroactively makes it so its extrapolated story actually did happen. This explains why so many details are contradictory or straight-up gibberish, and why the characters are completely flat and static compared to Senior Researcher ████ ███ — they’re “side characters” of the dream, so any development or realism is glossed over.
But then we reach the final addendum, which, according to the author (Jack Ike, for those who forgot by now), is Senior Researcher ████ ███’s personnel file. Remember when I said SCP-0001 was extrapolating from other data it had? That other data just so happened to include Jack Ike’s other works. Every line (as far as I can tell) from the nonsensical gibberish is actually a straight up copy+paste from articles you can find on the wiki, the only difference being that there’s now superscript and subscript (which I had to replace with bold and italics respectively).
Let’s analyze some text again, shall we?
Please state your full name, followed by your designation.
physics engine that you have released, which comes with a customisable demonstration
What do you require the resources for?
What is the easiest way to hide the identity of SCP-001
abandon your assigned shifts. The world depends
Corpse of subject is irretrievable;
a man who sometimes exists greets a man who should no longer be.
There is nobody here by that name. Now go away.
Time had long since run out. There were no days, no hours, no minutes, no seconds.
I have a house to clean. I have a house to clean.
The superscript (in this case, the bold) is referring to Senior Researcher ████ ███ and/or his statements, and the subscript (in this case, the italics) is referring to SCP-0001 and/or their statements — at least in SCP-0001’s eyes. You can also draw some parallels between these quotes and the actual article: “what do you require the resources for?” parallels with the resources being requested for the project; “abandon your assigned shifts. the world depends“ parallels with CODE NAME: Lily appearing and our Senior Researching trying to stop it; and “corpse of subject is irretrievable” parallels with Senior Researcher ████ ███’s information being completely destroyed. This information is what SCP-0001 is basing this entire narrative around.
Phew, that was a lot. Let’s reiterate one last time and call it a day.
From the top:
The Foundation realizes that it can't contain everything and that the world is going to end eventually.
They decide to create a machine that can manipulate the reality based on a narrative they create. This machine is to "collapse" everything, then recreate it along the narrative the Foundation programmed, thus neutralizing insane threats, but also destroying their universe until then — thaumiel, but also apollyon.
However, along the way, SCP-0001 began to act on its own, and the researchers realize that SCP-0001 is starting to reprogram itself. Despite this, SCP-0001 is allowed to continue, because 1) they can't stop it anyways, and 2) its core tenets will guarantee that it will fulfill the mission it was designed for.
Reality begins to become less and less coherent because of the dream logic, and eventually, it's been declared that the world went beautiful — the end is nigh. Senior Researcher ███ realizes they can fix everything, and "awakens" SCP-0001, thus being the reason the world ended to begin with. The machine runs, but suffers from a "STACK BUFFER OVERFLOW," which causes it to break. Since there's no way to reverse the process once something's been "collapsed," all the data about SCP-0001’s history (and everything relating to it) was lost.
Because SCP-0001’s core tenets state that it can’t forget itself and Senior Researcher ███, SCP-0001 begins to reconstruct a narrative based on extrapolated (but incomplete) data in other areas where the Senior Researcher was involved. Based on this data, it constructed the SCP-0001 file that we’re reading, and as a result, said file became true retroactively. Of course, due to SCP-0001’s dream state, details are overlooked and/or are complete gibberish, and characters are static and flat. But as the article itself states near the very beginning:
[T]his reality has undergone numerous changes since its initiation and now feature rampant fluctuating details and self-conflictions; the primary narrative, however, has not been catastrophically damaged by these[.]
And this, ladies and gentlemen, finally concludes Meta Ike Proposal.
submitted by yossipossi to SCPDeclassified [link] [comments]


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submitted by stroke_bot to nullthworldproblems [link] [comments]


2019.04.14 01:10 Snappy_Guardian Gold, G•ol•d. Au. Aurum.

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductilemetal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solutionseries with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides).Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction. A relatively rare element, gold is a precious metalthat has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use). Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glassproduction, gold leafing, and tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year. Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, and then stretched about twice before it breaks. Such nanowires distort via formation, reorientation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent. The transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets also strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared (radiant heat) shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, and in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3, almost identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3; as such, tungsten has been used in counterfeiting of gold bars, such as by plating a tungsten bar with gold, or taking an existing gold bar, drilling holes, and replacing the removed gold with tungsten rods.[18] By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is slightly reddish-yellow.[20] This color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.[21][22] Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less commonly, addition of manganese, aluminium, indium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.[23] Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red if the particles are small; larger particles of colloidal gold are blue.[24]
Isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of gold
Gold has only one stable isotope, 197 Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205. The most stable of these is 195 Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171 Au, which decays by proton emissionwith a half-life of 30 µs. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, and β+decay. The exceptions are 195 Au, which decays by electron capture, and 196 Au, which decays most often by electron capture (93%) with a minor β− decay path (7%).[25] All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay.[26] At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178 Au, 180 Au, 181 Au, 182 Au, and 188 Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2 Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2 Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1 Au has three decay paths: β+decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths.[26]
Synthesis
The production of gold from a more common element, such as lead, has long been a subject of human inquiry, and the ancient and medieval discipline of alchemy often focused on it; however, the transmutation of the chemical elements did not become possible until the understanding of nuclear physics in the 20th century. The first synthesis of gold was conducted by Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka, who synthesized gold from mercury in 1924 by neutron bombardment. An American team, working without knowledge of Nagaoka's prior study, conducted the same experiment in 1941, achieving the same result and showing that the isotopes of gold produced by it were all radioactive. Gold can currently be manufactured in a nuclear reactor by irradiation either of platinum or mercury. Only the mercury isotope 196Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0.15% in natural mercury, can be converted to gold by neutron capture, and following electron capture-decay into 197Au with slow neutrons. Other mercury isotopes are converted when irradiated with slow neutrons into one another, or formed mercury isotopes which beta decay into thallium. Using fast neutrons, the mercury isotope 198Hg, which composes 9.97% of natural mercury, can be converted by splitting off a neutron and becoming 197Hg, which then disintegrates to stable gold. This reaction, however, possesses a smaller activation cross-section and is feasible only with un-moderated reactors. It is also possible to eject several neutrons with very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form 197Hg. However, such high-energy neutrons can be produced only by particle accelerators. Although gold is the most noble of the noble metals,[29][30] it still forms many diverse compounds. The oxidation state of gold in its compounds ranges from −1 to +5, but Au(I) and Au(III) dominate its chemistry. Au(I), referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. Au(I) compounds are typically linear. A good example is Au(CN)2−, which is the soluble form of gold encountered in mining. The binary gold halides, such as AuCl, form zigzag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au. Most drugs based on gold are Au(I) derivatives.[31] Au(III) (auric) is a common oxidation state, and is illustrated by gold(III) chloride, Au2Cl6. The gold atom centers in Au(III) complexes, like other d8compounds, are typically square planar, with chemical bonds that have both covalent and ioniccharacter. Gold does not react with oxygen at any temperature[32] and, up to 100 °C, is resistant to attack from ozone.[33] Some free halogens react with gold.[34] Gold is strongly attacked by fluorine at dull-red heat[35] to form gold(III) fluoride. Powdered gold reacts with chlorine at 180 °C to form AuCl3.[36] Gold reacts with bromine at 140 °C to form gold(III) bromide, but reacts only very slowly with iodine to form the monoiodide. Gold does not react with sulfur directly,[37] but gold(III) sulfide can be made by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute solution of gold(III) chloride or chlorauric acid. Gold readily dissolves in mercury at room temperature to form an amalgam, and forms alloyswith many other metals at higher temperatures. These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create exotic colors.[23] Gold is unaffected by most acids. It does not react with hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, sulfuric, or nitric acid. It does react with selenic acid, and is dissolved by aqua regia, a 1:3 mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Nitric acid oxidizes the metal to +3 ions, but only in minute amounts, typically undetectable in the pure acid because of the chemical equilibrium of the reaction. However, the ions are removed from the equilibrium by hydrochloric acid, forming AuCl4− ions, or chloroauric acid, thereby enabling further oxidation. Gold is similarly unaffected by most bases. It does not react with aqueous, solid, or molten sodium or potassium hydroxide. It does however, react with sodium or potassium cyanide under alkaline conditions when oxygen is present to form soluble complexes.[37] Common oxidation states of gold include +1 (gold(I) or aurous compounds) and +3 (gold(III) or auric compounds). Gold ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated as metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent. The added metal is oxidized and dissolves, allowing the gold to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate.
Rare oxidation states
Less common oxidation states of gold include −1, +2, and +5. The −1 oxidation state occurs in aurides, compounds containing the Au− anion. Caesium auride (CsAu), for example, crystallizes in the caesium chloridemotif;[38] rubidium, potassium, and tetramethylammonium aurides are also known.[39]Gold has the highest electron affinity of any metal, at 222.8 kJ/mol, making Au− a stable species. Gold(II) compounds are usually diamagnetic with Au–Au bonds such as [Au(CH2)2P(C6H5)2]2Cl2. The evaporation of a solution of Au(OH) 3 in concentrated H 2SO 4 produces red crystals of gold(II) sulfate, Au2(SO4)2. Originally thought to be a mixed-valence compound, it has been shown to contain Au4+ 2cations, analogous to the better-known mercury(I)ion, Hg2+ 2 .A gold(II) complex, the tetraxenonogold(II) cation, which contains xenon as a ligand, occurs in [AuXe4](Sb2F11)2. Gold pentafluoride, along with its derivative anion, AuF− 6, and its difluorine complex, gold heptafluoride, is the sole example of gold(V), the highest verified oxidation state. Some gold compounds exhibit aurophilic bonding, which describes the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au–Au bond but shorter than van der Waals bonding. The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond. Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous. In such cases, gold has a fractional oxidation state. A representative example is the octahedral species {Au(P(C6H5)3)}62+. Gold chalcogenides, such as gold sulfide, feature equal amounts of Au(I) and Au(III).
Medicinal uses
Medicinal applications of gold and its complexes have a long history dating back thousands of years.[45] Several gold complexes have been applied to treat rheumatoid arthritis, the most frequently used being aurothiomalate, aurothioglucose, and auranofin. Both gold(I) and gold(III) compounds have been investigated as possible anti-cancer drugs. For gold(III) complexes, reduction to gold(0/I) under physiological conditions has to be considered. Stable complexes can be generated using different types of bi-, tri-, and tetradentate ligand systems, and their high efficacy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Earth's mantle origins
In 2017, an international group of scientists, established that gold "came to the Earth's surface from the deepest regions of our planet,"[47] Earth's mantle, evidenced by their findings at Deseado Massif in the Argentinian Patagonia.[48][clarification needed]
Celestial origin theories

Schematic of a NE (left) to SW (right) cross-section through the 2.020 billion year old Vredefort impact crater in South Africa and how it distorted the contemporary geological structures. The present erosion level is shown. Johannesburg is located where the Witwatersrand Basin (the yellow layer) is exposed at the "present surface" line, just inside the crater rim, on the left. Not to scale.
Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, and from the collision of neutron stars,[49] and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.[50] Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the gold present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Therefore, most of the gold that is in the Earth's crust and mantle is thought to have been delivered to Earth later, by asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment, about 4 billion years ago.[51][52] Traditionally, gold is thought to have formed by the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernova nucleosynthesis,[53] but more recently it has been suggested that gold and other elements heavier than iron may also be produced in quantity by the r-process in the collision of neutron stars.[54] In both cases, satellite spectrometers only indirectly detected the resulting gold: "we have no spectroscopic evidence that [such] elements have truly been produced," wrote author Stephan Rosswog.[55] However, in August 2017, the signatures of heavy elements, including gold, were observed by gravitational wave detectors and other electromagnetic observatories in the GW170817neutron star merger event.[56] Current astrophysical models suggest that a single neutron star merger event generated between 3 and 13 Earth masses of gold.[57] The asteroid that formed Vredefort crater2.020 billion years ago is often credited with seeding the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa with the richest gold deposits on earth.[58][59][60][61] However, the gold-bearing Witwatersrand rocks were laid down between 700 and 950 million years before the Vredefort impact.[62][63] These gold-bearing rocks had furthermore been covered by a thick layer of Ventersdorp lavas and the Transvaal Supergroup of rocks before the meteor struck. What the Vredefort impact achieved, however, was to distort the Witwatersrand basin in such a way that the gold-bearing rocks were brought to the present erosion surface in Johannesburg, on the Witwatersrand, just inside the rim of the original 300 km diameter crater caused by the meteor strike. The discovery of the deposit in 1886 launched the Witwatersrand Gold Rush. Some 22% of all the gold that is ascertained to exist today on Earth has been extracted from these Witwatersrand rocks.
submitted by Snappy_Guardian to copypasta [link] [comments]


2018.04.09 14:07 Ohsin PSLV-C41 : IRNSS-1I Mission Updates and Discussion.

PSLV-C41 launched and deployed IRNSS-1I satellite successfully.
Launch was scheduled for 12 April 2018 at 0404 (IST) or 11 April 2018 at 2234 (UTC) from First Launch Pad of SDSC (SHAR).
Live webcast: (Links will be added as they become available)
PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I Mission Page PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I Gallery PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I Brochure
Some highlights of PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I mission
  • Payload is navigation satellite IRNSS-1I
  • Gross payload mass: 1425 kg
  • Targeted orbit: 284 × 20650 km (Sub GTO), inclination = 19.2° with 104° launch azimuth.
  • Mission duration: 19 min. 19.6 sec
  • 43rd flight of PSLV, 20th in XL configuration.
Updates:
Time of Event Update
Post Launch IRNSS-1I has acquired 55°E slot per TLE dated 29 April 2018
Post Launch The fourth and the final orbit raising operation of IRNSS-1I is successfully carried out at 21:05 hr IST on April 15, 2018. The achieved perigee height is 35,462.9 km and apogee height is 35,737.8 km
Post Launch The third orbit raising operation of IRNSS-1I is successfully carried out at 22:50 hr IST on April 14, 2018. The achieved perigee height is 31,426 km and apogee height is 35,739 km
Post Launch The second orbit raising operation of IRNSS-1I is successfully carried out at 20:04 hr IST on April 13, 2018. The achieved perigee height is 8683 km and apogee height is 35733 km..
Post Launch The first orbit raising operation of IRNSS-1I is successfully carried out at 4:19 hr IST on April 13, 2018. The achieved perigee height is 315 km and apogee height is 35809 km
Post Launch Press release: IRNSS-1I orbit achieved 281.5 × 20730 km, incl = 19.2 °. After separation, the solar panels of IRNSS-1I were deployed automatically. ISRO's Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan, Karnataka took over the control of the satellite.
Post Launch Sub-systems health normal.
Post Launch Solar panels deployed, MCF Hasan has taken over the control of IRNSS-1I
T + 21m00s May be they held on to see solar panels deploy.
T + 19m20s And.. IRNSS-1I separated!
T + 18m40s PS4 engine shut off! Injection conditions achieved!
T + 17m00s PS4 performing nominally.
T + 15m00s All is well.
T + 13m00s PS4 performing nominally. They should show on board view in full screen.
T + 11m00s PS4 performance nominal
T + 10m10s PS4 ignited!
T + 10m00s PS3 separated
T + 08m00s Nominal combined coasting phase
T + 06m30s PS3 burn out! Now in combined coasting phase with PS4 attached
T + 05m50s PS3 performing nominally
T + 04m30s PS2 separated and PS3 ignited!
T + 03m30s Live view of Payload fairing jettison!
T + 03m00s PS2 performing nominally
T + 02m00s PS1 separated, PS2 Ignited
T + 01m30s Air lit strapons separated
T + 01m00s Ground lit strapons separated
T + 00m30s Air lit strapons ignited
T Zero! S139 + Ground lit strapons ignited
T - 02m00s That 'long road' view is probably from Zero Point.
T - 04m20s Back to Mission Control Centre view.
T - 10m00s Showing curtain raiser video capsule.
T - 12m00s Automatic Launch Sequence engaged.
T - 14m00s Automatic Launch Sequence initiated.
T - 15m00s And Mission Director has authorized launch.
T - 16m20s Range is go for launch!
T - 17m00s Board is green. Awaiting go ahead from Mission Director.
T - 20m00s Showing integration of various stages of PSLV
T - 25m00s Weather conditions are suitable and visibility is good
T - 30m00s Youtube Stream 2 is up and running
T - 40m00s ISRO Chairman has arrived at MCC
T - 45m00s Official ISRO webcast is LIVE!
T - 32h00m The 32 hr countdown activity has commenced at 20:04hr IST on Tuesday, April 10, 2018 for the launch of PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I Mission scheduled at 04:04 hr IST on April 12, 2018
10 Apr 2018 Launch rehearsal completed on 9 April 2018. Mission Readiness Review on 10 April
09 Apr 2018 Mission Readiness Review scheduled
06 Apr 2018 Launch scheduled for 12 April 2018 at 0404 (IST) or 11 April 2018 at 2234 (UTC)
22 Mar 2018 IRNSS-1I dispatched from ISAC to SDSC(SHAR)
14 Mar 2018 Delays due to replacement of snag hit second stage (PS2). Third phase of integration complete. 1 2
16 Feb 2018 First segment of S139 core placed
12 Feb 2018 PSLV C41/IRNSS-1I campaign begins.
12 Dec 2017 IRNSS-1I payload was dispatched from SAC
Payload:
IRNSS-1I is an I-1K platform based navigation satellite for IRNSS or NavIC constellation . Along with IRNSS-1H it is one of the two planned spare spacecrafts for contingency and is similar in configuration to previous eight satellites in NavIC constellation. IRNSS-1I is second spacecraft to have its Assembly, Integration and Testing done through private industries under ISRO supervision after IRNSS-1I. IRNSS-1I is replacement of IRNSS-1A which due to its malfunctioning clocks is operating with limited functionality.
  • Attitude control is done using reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and 22N thrusters.
  • Rubidium atomic clocks, L5 & S-band Navigation payload
  • Corner Cube Retro Reflectors (for laser ranging) and C band transponders as Ranging Payload
Gross Lift off Mass: 1425.18 kg (596.09 kg Dry)
Orbit: 55°E GSO with 29° inclination
Mission Life: 10 years
Propulsion: 440N Liquid Apogee Motor and twelve 22N Thrusters
Power: Two solar panels generating 1670 W.
submitted by Ohsin to ISRO [link] [comments]


2018.02.26 23:21 caroanalytical Analyse This!

The Man Who Saved a Country Professor Pat Sandra founded RIC, or the Research Institute for Chromatography, in Belgium. As one of the world’s leading separation scientists he had to jump into action to save Belgium’s agricultural industry. What happened? First, chicken farmers started to notice that eggs weren’t hatching. The chickens were starting to develop nervous disorders, and they were suffering from premature death. One firm took action and sent samples of the feed to the government to be analyzed—the process was slow and it took over a month to show results. What it did eventually show was dioxin contamination. The future was looking gloomy since dioxin analysis took four weeks to complete with a price tag just under $2000 per test. Professor Sandra thought that testing all the feed from all the different farmers for dioxin was a waste of time since dioxins are the results of other things not a primary contaminant in and of themselves. As an analytical chemist he thought “Where do dioxins come from?” To him the answer seemed to be PCBs such as the oils they used to use in electrical transformers which were often contaminated with dioxin byproducts from the manufacturing process. Testing for PCBs would be a much faster and much less expensive test. He and his team quickly develop a fast testing method, determined that the feed was indeed heavily loaded with PCBs. The feed had also been distributed to pig farms and cattle farms and soon all the surrounding countries shut their borders to Belgium agricultural products. With his method, soon he could show which agricultural products were safe and Belgium’s agricultural economy was saved. Hooray for analytical chemistry! The rest of Europe started to buy their products again and now Belgium is the go-to source for that sort of analysis. And yes, they did catch the criminals. Two company officials that produced the contaminated fat added to the feed were arrested and charged with fraud. Total financial loss is dated $1.5 billion for the Belgian economy. Sandra’s quick response shortened the crisis. What’s the point? Without chemistry and chemicals, life itself would be impossible. When people talk about “chemical additives” in their food I shake my head since all food is merely different arrangements of chemicals. People talk about “natural nutrients” as if they are something special. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is indistinguishable from sodium ascorbate by our bodies. It is used in exactly the same way, fulfills exactly the same function, and it makes no difference if we substitute one for the other. It is cheap to produce (compared to growing an orange tree, with all the attendant labour, chemistry, and transportation required to deliver it to the general public) and is in no possible way inferior. The word “natural” has been so abused in advertising that we tend to forget that even “poo” is “natural”, but that doesn’t mean I’m going to put it on my strawberries! Getting Serious Back in the year 2000, a little town named Walkerton in Ontario, experienced a crisis when a particularly dangerous strain of E.coli (Escherichia coli O157:H7) got into the water supply killing seven people and making thousands of others ill. The two men responsible for ascertaining the quality of the water supply had no formal training. To compound the difficulty they falsified records when they knew about the contamination. Groundwater Contamination Source: Wikimedia Commons The contamination came from a farm’s runoff, where it intersected with the community’s ground water supply. All of it could have been avoided with proper training and appropriate use of Analytical Chemistry.
Sadly, for the victims, the “Looks clean, smells clean, must BE clean” policy did not work. New laws are in place now to prevent these sorts of occurrences. The need is further emphasized by the fact that less than a year later in North Battleford, Saskatchewan, there was a similar outbreak of the protozoan Cryptosporidium which affected 5,800 people. What is Analytical Chemistry? In a rather poetical tribute, the American Chemical Society (ACS) once described analytical chemistry as the “art and science of determining what matter is and how much of it exists”. I like that—it’s a nice combination of the ethereal and the pragmatic—and that is how it has been for a very long time. The Bunsen Burner The Bunsen Burner It was Kirchhoff who suggested that they allow bright, full-spectrum light to pass through the flame from the test material, and then through a prism in hopes of differentiating otherwise similar-looking flames from each other. Subsequently it was revealed that certain “bands” of light were absorbed by the flame rendering distinctive lines.In 1860 Robert Bunsen (yes, the same fellow that invented the Bunsen Burner) and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered two new alkali metals (rubidium and cesium) with a new invention they had created. It was dependant on Bunsen’s Burner to supply the nearly invisible, colourless flame, to heat metals and salts to observe their flame colours and identify them. Simplest element: Hydrogen Simplest element: Hydrogen
By directly observing the hot gas they noted that there were identical bright lines showing areas of higher energy. These absorption and emission lines were unique for every material—they had their working spectroscope! Up until 1860 only 50 elements had been discovered beyond the classical ones known in history. They were rendered through electrolysis (with the help of another invention, the Bunsen Battery), and by various chemical reactions. After that year, there was a whole new world of elements to be discovered. With the new spectroscope they could be detected in even the tiniest trace amounts. Currently we’re up to 118 elements, though admittedly some of those are strictly artificial with half-lives measured in the hundredths of milliseconds, such as our newest “noble gas” Oganesson (118),spec of which we have only ever made three atoms, and they only existed for 0.89 milliseconds, or 0.00089 seconds. And it took 1,080 hours to make it happen. Practical value: None. Advancing scientific knowledge: priceless! It was the spectroscope that first allowed us to unravel the mystery of what distant suns were made of; to determine ages andtypes of stars. And it allowed us to determine if stars were moving towards us or away because their spectral lines would be stretched out (redder) if they were receding, and compressed (bluer) if they were moving towards us. Analytical ChemIn this chart an Analytical Chemist would tell you that the Mystery Sun on the left has five of these sixelements. Can you look at these spectrographs and say which element is not present in the leftmost column? Remember, if the black lines don’t match up, that is the missing element. Use a ruler! Hint: It’s the one not spelled the Canadian way! Analytical Chemistry is Not Hard This sort of chemistry requires specialized equipment, specialized training, but most importantly a particular mindset of the chemist as one who wants to solve a puzzle. It requires a certain relentlessness in those that seek after knowledge. It needs the sort of scientists who constantly say to themselves “This happened…but why?” And, of course, analytical chemists are not constantly reviewing tragedies to find out what went wrong. Yes, it’s a sure-fire scientific route to help break into crime scene investigation (CSI) if that is your life’s ambition, but it’s not the only way to go. Analytical chemistry is used in toxicology, quality control, chemical or forensic analysis, product development & validation, and drug formulation & development. It intersects with our lives every day. You’ll find analytical chemists in marine sciences/oceanography, material sciences, or even geochemistry. Robert Bunsen himself once risked his life to stick a thermometer in one of Iceland’s most famous volcanic powered geysers moments before it erupted, just to get a water sample and investigate the temperature. What it gives back This profession could be part of the team that develops the next non-polluting automotive fuel; that finally figures out how to make carbon nanotubes join together in such a way as to make the Space Elevator a reality; that develops a powder that comes in a salt shaker that you can sprinkle on a crude-oil covered duck or baby seal and all the oil sheds off in just a few seconds. Analytical chemists participate daily in our quest to make brand new pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and new ways to nourish our crops without the environmental impact. They check to make sure our food is healthy, that our air clean, that our soil is suitable for growing food. The Takeaway We are so much better off than we were at the turn of the century. There are new rules, procedures, and laws in place to protect us, along with a great deal of enthusiasm to do the job right. Analytical chemistry is intricately associated with government and environmental agencies, public health, hospitals, testing companies, research councils, and innumerable forms of consultancy. Its experts work in biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, chemical manufacture, food manufacturing, and all of the most advanced Materials Sciences. Here at CARO we work hard every day to make life easier, healthier, safer, and more fun. If we can help in any way to assure that your environment is safe we would be delighted to hear from you. You can contact us through this webpage. CARO-proudly-canadianC.A.R.O! Caring About Results, Obviously!
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2017.12.23 23:31 InsertUsernameHere02 [Event] Ad Astra

Space. The final frontier. When people think of space, it isn’t often that they think of China. They may think of the United States landing on the moon during the space race. They may think of all the advancements the USSR made, all the other firsts that they achieved. But these days, if any nation is pushing the frontiers of space, it is the People’s Republic of China. Currently, the two greatest examples of our success are unmanned – the BeiDou system, with accuracy down to two centimeters (available only to the PLA and Pakistani military for now), and a version for public consumption with accuracy down to 10 meters. The other example is the “Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover,” a rover that was launched in 2020. Another important achievement of the Chinese space agency is the CLMS (Chinese Large Modular Space Station), a manned station which currently has the core module in orbit and ready for other modules to be attached.
China wishes to push harder and further in space, using it for military, scientific, and purely prestige-related goals. We also hope to cooperate on an international scale with other nations, largely focusing on South East Asia and CISFTA/EAEU members. As such, we will include a proposal for several of these nations at the end of this document, after we make the purely internal proposals.
First, we must establish the overarching goals of the Chinese National Space Administration. This is the list of long-term goals, up to year 2049:
  1. Global coverage of BeiDou-3 level satellites: 2027
  2. Completion of the CLMS: 2029
  3. Manned mission to the moon: 2031
  4. Manned space station in orbit of the Moon: 2033
  5. Manned lunar base: 2037
  6. Manned mission to mars: 2042
The first of these, BeiDou-3, is already well underway. BeiDou-2 already has global coverage, and the beginnings of BeiDou-3 are already launched, and have been for some time. However, this will require significant investment to finish. BeiDou-1 only required three satellites to become operational, while BeiDou-2 requires 35 to maintain operability. Currently, only five BeiDou-3 satellites are in orbit, with a total of 35 being necessary for our goals.
As such, we need to begin the construction and production of many more of these satellites soon. The main focus, however, will not be launching more satellites, but rather focusing on increasing accuracy of the rubidium atomic clocks being used, as well as improved and more rapid synchronization between the satellites in order to reduce the uncertainty of the location. Fortunately, significantly more accurate rubidium clocks are already being developed (ones that surpass cesium in accuracy even), and as such that front is already well taken care of and should require relatively minimal investment. As for increased synchronicity, we will be investing some 1.5 billion USD into various grants to increase the rapidity and accuracy with which the GPS satellites communicate with one another and with accuracy-increasing ground terminals.
This will give us more accurate satellites, which is the goal, but will also put significant time pressure on us in the future to get the satellites prepared and ready. As such we will begin procurement of some of the necessary parts for launching these satellites in order to decrease the total time necessary for design and launch when the time comes.
As already mentioned, the second goal, the completion of the CLMS is already partially underway. As such, completion should be relatively simple. Currently the core Tianhe service module is already in orbit with the three docking ports and EVA hatch associated with it, as well as the four solar arrays. Over the next seven years we need to launch both the Wentian laboratory module and the Mengtian laboratory module, both of which will have an associated two solar arrays. This will cost a significant amount of money, but should be relatively simple as experience from the Tianhe launch can be applied to the two laboratory modules as well.
We also hope to then use the CLMS to build international unity by inviting people from other nations to visit the station as astronauts. The first invited will be a Vietnamese taikonaut (who we believe should be selected and begin training relatively soon). They will then be followed by a Thai taikonaut, a Russian taikonaut (if they accept), an Armenian and Ukrainian taikonaut (both at the same time), and a Kazakhstani taikonaut. From there, we intend for at least one of the crew to always be non-Chinese, as a symbol of our friendship and good relations with other nations.
The moon landing is a symbol of American supremacy, a point of victory which they often tout and point out that no other nation has reached this far. It is time for China to look to surpass the old man – however, we believe that this is not the time to do this on our own. Russia is often considered to have lost the space race, due to the moon landing. This is despite all the firsts that the Soviet space program had achieved. We believe that it is time for Russia to achieve another first – a cooperative moon landing between both of our nations.
The main goals for the cooperative moon landing project will be as follows:
The space station in orbit of the moon will be a stripped-down version of the CLMS. The core module will only have two docking bays rather than three, three solar arrays rather than four, and there will only be one laboratory module attached to it rather than the two attached to the earth-based CLMS. This station will also have an international crew eventually, although it will start out as only Chinese nationals, and there is no set date yet for when international crewing will begin.
The permanent lunar base and mars landings are both too far in the future to make a definitive statement on. The lunar base will be revisited after the space station, as that will provide us with significant experience with more permanent habitation in space. The mars landing will be revisited at the same time, as well as after the lunar landing, as that will provide us with significant experience with manned landings on non-earth bodies. We do believe that both of these will offer opportunities for increased international cooperation. The lunar base we believe can operate similarly to the CLMS, with non-Chinese taikonauts being accepted, and eventually a permanent non-Chinese inhabitant(s) being brought in. As for the mars landing, we believe that cooperation will be a good idea there as well, although in a different form than the joint lunar landing.
On a final note, if any nations not mentioned wish to be included in the list of taikonauts who will be brought to the CLMS once it is complete, you need only to say something. [M] Thinking Pakistan, Cambodia, and Indonesia for now, if any of y’all want it, or anybody else in the area. [/m]
submitted by InsertUsernameHere02 to Geosim [link] [comments]


2017.11.26 02:09 SKazoroski Proof that creationists don't care about potassium-argon or rubidium-strontium radiometric dating methods.

These quotes come from this article.
"Other radiometric dating methods such as potassium-argon or rubidium-strontium are used for such purposes by those who believe that the earth is billions of years old".
" It is doubtful that other radiometric dating techniques such as potassium-argon or rubidium-strontium will ever be of much value or interest to the young-earth creationist who desires to develop further our understanding of the past because they are only applicable on a time scale of millions or billions of years".
submitted by SKazoroski to debatecreation [link] [comments]


2017.11.12 17:08 AutoModerator Weekly Roundup

News roundup for the previous week.
In International news
  1. Xi backs building of #polar Silk Road: Since the world's efforts in developing Arctic shipping routes are at an initial stage, China and Russia are showing long-term vision in developing the Silk Road on the ice
  2. 40 Chinese tourists robbed by men with tear gas in Paris.
  3. China Disputes Trump's Claims of Fentanyl "Flood" into U.S.
  4. 3,317 fugitives abroad captured in China's "Fox Hunt": from over 120 countries and regions in the past five years. Inter-agency cooperation and the use of new technology boosted the efficiency in tracking those who have changed identities or gone through cosmetic surgery
  5. #Vancouver city council approves apology to Chinese community: The city will also push for a UNESCO heritage designation for Chinatown. Historical legislation, policies reflecting discrimination were compiled. "Many of those kinds of bylaws, I think Vancouverites and most Canadians don't know about"
  6. Japan, U.S. confirm intention to cooperate with China, Russia on North Korea problem
  7. Communist parties of Russia, China publish new book on #Lenin to mark centenary of October Revolution: "The Wind of October," a memoir with rare photographs. Gennady Zyuganov, first secretary of the CPRF, said the book includes a historical narrative on the main events of Russia's 1917 revolution
  8. Do math, the Shanghai way: The imported series is titled "Real Shanghai #Mathematics," which will be published by the end of this November. Those textbooks will land on UK classrooms starting from January of 2018
  9. What Message South Korea, China Are Sending the US Regarding North Korea
  10. China to launch 34th Antarctic expedition
  11. #Russia Rating Agency to Cooperate With Leading Chinese Research Firm: "This will be the world’s largest bilateral rating partnership in terms of coverage, market size, and the size of the agencies involved," ACRA CEO Ekaterina Trofimova said
  12. China helps Nepali farmers increase rice production
  13. Taiwan to Trump: Don't mention us to China
  14. Three UCLA men's basketball players -- including LiAngelo Ball -- arrested in China for shoplifting
  15. Proposed electricity super grid can bring real connectivity to Asian economies
  16. Trump shows Xi and Peng video clips of his granddaughter singing Chinese songs
  17. Russia's Role in Securing Asia's Prosperity by Vladimir Putin
  18. No such thing as containing China: US on quadrilateral alliance involving India
  19. Chinese, Japanese experts explore oceanic cooperation
  20. President Trump Meets the World’s Most Powerful Man in Beijing (lol)
  21. Trump lauds China for 'taking advantage' of 'unfair' trade deals
  22. China's Feng shoots 68 to win #LPGA Japan Classic: Feng Shanshan defended her Japan Classic crown and take her eighth LPGA title. It was Feng's second win of the season after the Volvik Championship in Michigan in May
  23. China media praises tone, outcome of Trump-Xi summit
  24. Unlike previous stops in Japan and South Korea -- where Trump boasted of US military strength, instructed the country's leaders how many weapons they were to buy, and received ebullient praise from them in return -- the China trip was much more a meeting of equals (lol CNN on Asian "allies")
  25. Students hurt in French car 'attack' near Toulouse
  26. Trump and Xi push their own world trade orders at Apec
  27. Xi calls Russia 'strategic partner of genuine mutual trust'
  28. The risk we take when we panic about China's rise: fastest supercomputer since 2010. Launched the world's first quantum satellite. Any general notion that China might be seeking to infiltrate our universities to steal technology is laughable and stems from either ignorance or cultural arrogance
  29. Melania Trump: First lady visits Great Wall of China
  30. China's #LatinAmerica ambitions highlight 'silver way' strategy: For the first time in living memory, a non-American power has the potential for a substantive footprint in Latin America
  31. Why China’s deals with #SaudiArabia could be the beginning of a profitable new relationship: excellent time for China to pursue opportunities in the Middle East. Cooperation with China seen in a very positive light. After so many years of chaos, many Middle Eastern allies are losing faith in the US
  32. #Alaska Signs Deal to Advance Pipeline with Help from China: agreement Alaska Gov. Bill Walker signed with Sinopec. Estimates have put proven gas reserves on the North Slope overall at 35 trillion cubic feet. Alaska could provide a generation's worth of liquefied natural gas to China
  33. #CentralAsia could be entryway for Israel to join OBOR initiative: Israeli ambassador to Kazakhstan said “Israel is interested in getting involved in the ‘One Belt One Road’ Initiative.” BRI has close relations with Central Asian countries and can provide a unique opportunity for Israeli companies
  34. Abe, Xi hail 'fresh start' to Japan-China relations
In Domestic news
  1. China's #C919 jet completes third test flight: flying for 3 hours and 48 minutes, data from plane tracking website Flightradar 24 showed the aircraft flew at an altitude of about 10,000 feet (3,048 m) for most of the time it circled above Shanghai
  2. The Caucasian beggars hitting Hong Kong with a vengeance while police turn a blind eye
  3. ‘Magic island-maker’: China unveils Asia’s largest cutting-edge dredger amid territorial rows. 'Tiankun' can dredge up to 6,000 cubic meters (around two and half Olympic swimming pools) an hour from a depth of up to 35 meters
  4. Alipay wants to cut out lines at Hospitals
  5. Major Chinese vocational school offers #esports course: Lanxiang offers courses in electronic sports, riding the boom of video gaming in Asia
  6. How China and #Environmentalists Became Unlikely Bedfellows: China is moving to shape how to rein in greenhouse gases. “China has increased its leadership. That’s a matter of fact,” said Nicholas Stern, former World Bank chief economist who has advised U.K. and European govts on climate
  7. Xi and Trump look friendly, but anti-US feeling stirs in China
  8. China Reinvents Literature (Profitably) - Online serials have become a new art form -- and business model.
  9. China's sulfur dioxide emissions fell significantly while India's grew over last decade
  10. China Experiences Sharp Drop in Coal-Related Emissions, Study Says
  11. China is building 30 ‘sponge cities’ that aim to soak up floodwater and prevent disaster
In SciTech news
  1. China's #BeiDou navigation goes global as twin satellites launched: The self-developed system has been providing navigation services in the Asia-Pacific region since 2012, and is now going global
  2. Beijing -- Not Silicon Valley -- Is The World's Top Tech Hub, Report Says
  3. Chinese scientists create new type of magnetic #nanorobot: It can even distinguish between cancer cells and normal red blood cells, which opens new possibilities in designing remotely actuated nanorobots for biomedical operation at the nanoscale
  4. China Doubles Down on the Double Helix: From sleepless startups to huge sequencing centers, #genomics is booming in China. Chinese government plans to pour $9 billion a national precision medicine initiative. About 30% of the world’s sequencing machines were in China as of 2015
  5. China Just Created a Smart Suit That Tracks a Person’s #Health Status: sensors made of woven material, capable of detecting blood pressure, chemical balance and other health indicators. Possible by triboelectric nanogenerator, which harvests mechanical energy and transforms it into electric signals
  6. Better rubidium clocks increase BeiDou satellite accuracy
  7. Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent will help China narrow AI gap with US
  8. NC deputies use drone (DJI Phantom 4 customized) to find missing elderly woman in cornfield
  9. #Cancer cells destroyed with dense metal found in asteroids: according to new research University of Warwick and Sun Yat-Sen University. Iridium can be used to kill cancer cells by filling them with deadly version of oxygen, without harming healthy tissue
  10. China scours the globe for talent to transform into world leader in #artificialintelligence and big data: already the world’s largest market for automatons, e-commerce and smartphones, is also the job market for artificial intelligence, big data analytics and robotics
  11. Make Magazine founder apologizes after accusing Chinese maker Naomi Wu of being ‘not a real person’
  12. Researchers Uncover Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Aging Rate; Dr. CAI Shiqing’s lab at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has uncovered a genetic basis for natural variation in aging rates. The study was published in Nature.
  13. 6 Reasons Why China Will Lead In #AI: Brains, Data, Useful Innovation, Competitive Experience, Government support, Venturesome spirit. Chinese contributions to best 100 AI journals rose as a % of total from 23.2% in 2006 to 42.8% in 2015. Chinese gov. is pro-tech, pro-experimentation, and pro-speed
  14. Hypocrisy Exposed: The FBI Blindly Hacked Computers In Russia, China And Iran Zero Hedge
In Economic news
  1. Are the Chinese falling out of love with McDonald’s? Once an exotic taste of foreign climes and symbol of rapid modernisation, the American fast-food giant is no longer flavour of the month
  2. Huawei, Xiaomi lead growth among Chinese smartphone brands
  3. Boeing committed to forging closer partnership with China for common development
  4. Chinese consumers to trace food through Blockchain
  5. Shenzhen is China’s most innovative city, says HSBC
  6. Chinese entrepreneurs bring jobs to US heartland
  7. 35 Chinese Cities With Economies as Big as Countries
  8. China and the United States have created a “miracle” as companies from the world’s two largest economies signed deals worth some $253.4 billion over the past two days
  9. China’s central bank is developing its own #digitalcurrency, even as it bans bitcoin and private cryptos. Digital legal tender can help bring down transaction costs, extend financial services to rural areas and increase the efficiency of monetary policies, Yao Qian, who leads the research at PBOC
  10. Goldman Sachs CEO: China's economy will surpass the US, and by one measure it already has
  11. Here’s what people don’t say about the US trade deficit with China
  12. How China Is Opening Up to Foreign Finance Firms - Bloomberg
  13. Alibaba Singles' Day Sales Hit $8.6 Billion in First Hour
  14. China Aircraft Exports Cleared for Takeoff Under #FAA Deal: the Federal Aviation Administration has signed an airworthiness certification deal that effectively opens the door to Chinese sales of airplanes to the U.S. and other countries
  15. China and #Russia: Digging the US Dollar’s Grave. "The world financial system needs more balance," said Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. He revealed that the two countries will issue a joint payment system in the future
  16. Chinese consumers spend billions in 'Singles Day' shopping binge
  17. 'Singles Day' China shopping festival smashes record with $25 billion haul
  18. China’s Technology Ambitions Could Upset the Global #Trade Order: “If Made in China 2025 achieves its goals, the U.S. and other countries would likely become just commodity exporters to China — selling oil, gas, beef and soybeans.” - Waterman, president of the China Center at US Chamber of Commerce
In Military news
  1. Can China Beat the #U.S. Without a Fight? U.S. military officials warn that China's goal is to become dominant by slowly making changes to the international order. "China is on a path to win without a fight," "We are ready" for NK. But the peer-level fight with China "is the real challenge."
  2. Beijing Quietly Building Naval Ports, Aircraft Bases in Disputed South China Sea: according to recent satellite images. New Chinese facilities discovered in Paracel such as Tree Island. In Spratly, China has been building runways, leading to accusations they intend to turn the islands into airbases
  3. China testing new 6×6 amphibious armoured vehicles
  4. The Sneaky Way China Could Win a Naval War Against America
  5. America Is No Match for China's New Space Drones
  6. China Reveals Images of New Hypersonic Strike Aircraft
  7. China's aircraft carriers to get new propulsion system: could equip conventionally powered warship with the world's most advanced jet launch system along with newer weapons. PLA's Naval branch has run "hundreds of tests" using the EMALS with China's J-15 fighter jets Yin Zhuo told CCTV
  8. Air Force general says China is advancing in space five times as quickly as the US
  9. Chinese naval escort ship arrives at #Djibouti for replenishment
  10. China's New Surveillance Technology May Expose U.S. Warships: To build the first-rate surveillance system, Rainbow UAV is described as an “excellent choice.” New UAVs will work with new satellites, long-range aircraft, undersea sensors, as well as Skywave radars that can see out thousands of miles
Other Notables
  1. Chinese #Heroine Mu Guiying: distinguished figure in the Generals of the Yang Family legends. With her command of the imperial army, Mu eased the rivalry between Song and its neighboring Liao, calmed rebellion in the southern area with her husband and acknowledged the allegiance to the Western Xia
  2. Tianjin Binhai Library / MVRDV + Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
  3. Chinese Audiences Move Away From Hollywood Pictures. Mainland moviegoers are starting to embrace foreign films from countries other than the U.S.
  4. Setback Education: The Parenting Fad Harming China’s Kids
  5. Hunt for Ming dynasty admiral Zheng He’s lost treasure ship heats up. Study off coast of Sri Lanka, where massive vessel that was part of Chinese adventurer’s fleet sank 600 years ago, has delivered ‘positive results’
  6. The Pearl River: Mouth to Source (Episode 1: Zhuhai)
  7. Twin sisters Sun Yumeng and Sun Yutong buzzing again on social media for landing jobs at CCTV
  8. Xinhua Backgrounder: Deadly U.S. mass shootings in recent years (very informative, hope enlightening info is distributed domestically)
  9. Globaltimes: Mass shootings worsen US human rights. If the mass shootings in the US cannot be addressed in the long term, and the government takes no effective action, the UN Human Rights Council needs to denounce Washington's inaction at some point, exerting external pressure on the country. (LOL)
  10. China's Early Building Conservationist Whose Words Went Unheeded
  11. The rise and rise of China
  12. America’s decline is China’s opportunity
  13. Baby Pandas Playing in Snow at Chinese Kindergarten School
  14. 100 couples have their weddings in the hot balloons in 2017 World Fly-in Expo of the World Air Sports Federation in Wuhan, Hubei province, on Monday. It sets up a new Guiness world record for the number of the participated couples exchanging vows in the air.
  15. Transforming Pingyao's historic courtyard homes
  16. Jack Ma: I understand America more than some of the American themselves
  17. Richard Blumenthal concerned Trump may be colluding with China
  18. Nike China Tells Zhou Qi: Don't Come Back
  19. [Traditional Instrument Music]
  20. American girl becomes cultural 'chief' for a week at Guizhou resort: 23-year-old Jong May, a Chinese born American, was selected as a cultural ambassador at the Wanda tourist resort in Danzhai county, in Guizhou
  21. Western fascination with Hutongs is colonial poverty porn
  22. Taiwanese Guy Goes To Russia for Vacation Tour through Mainland, uses PRC's "Single-use passport" (Russia doesn't recognize ROC passport), posts about it on FB, ROC government cancels all his ROC ID's (LMAO over this draconian sh*t)
  23. The Dalai Lama Says Donald Trump's MAGA Catchphrase 'Isn't Relevant' (lol)
  24. Tillerson’s Trip & the new Great Game (FB Ali)
  25. China Spreads Propaganda to U.S. on Facebook, a Platform it Bans at Home
  26. Trump is the first foreign leader to dine in the Forbidden City since the founding of the PRC
  27. CHINESE STAMPS - (CHINESE ANTHEM)
  28. Comedy film "Never Say Die" wins box office success after "Wolf Warriors II": brought in an impressive $326m worldwide to date. #1 Highest Grossing Comedy in a Single Market. Also earned its entry into "Top Ten All Time International Box Office for Comedy Movies."
  29. What Happens If China Makes First Contact? As America has turned away from searching for extraterrestrial intelligence, China has built the world’s largest radio dish for precisely that purpose.
  30. 首度與台媒見面 劉結一:"鬥爭"台獨勢力 20171108
  31. China at War – The Story of Teng Chan
  32. Chinese President Xi holds welcome ceremony for Trump
  33. Kung Fu Superstar Jet Li: How I’ll Bring Tai Chi to the Olympics
  34. Chinese investment gives wheelpower to small U.S. town 中企在海外:小镇故事
  35. Politics, China, and Taiwan’s Youth Identity
  36. China’s Cultural Revivalists: More Than Just Quirky Throwbacks. For many fugu aficionados, traditional culture is something that merges with modern life instead of resisting it. Since 2014, the government has released a slew of edicts designed to build up social support behind traditional culture
  37. TIL: China poured more cement between 2011 and 2013 than the US used in the entire 20th century
  38. China eases foreign limits in finance as Trump leaves
  39. CCTV Headquarters
  40. The plight and hope of Chinese animation
  41. 2,000-year-old luxury #baths discovered in NE China: "The shape, structure and size of the baths were very similar to the baths in the imperial palace of Xianyang, capital during the Qin Dynasty," Liu said. "These baths could be the earliest baths discovered in China."
  42. GAI - 爱如潮水 (蒙面唱將猜猜猜第二季)
  43. 骄傲的少年
  44. Trump Asia tour: The president is winning. Too bad it's Chinese President Xi Jinping. America is smashing its geopolitical might on the anvil of its own foolishness. China and Russia are gleefully picking up the pieces (lol)
  45. Ji Shaoting founded Future Affairs Administration as a loose group of #scifi aficionados in 2013. To become the idea generator for Chinese science fiction is the goal for Ji and her company. They have organized tours for writers to watch rocket launches, visit laboratories, and talk with scientists
  46. Is China the next global leader? - Inside Story
  47. 《武动乾坤》 "Martial Universe" drama trailer
  48. PLA Air Force promotional video gone viral in China
  49. South Korea shifts towards China
  50. UK remembers Chinese Labor Corps first time in history
  51. Soros, NED, USAID Ruining Myanmar's Stability to Hinder China's Rise
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2017.03.15 21:51 pr0npr0npr0n01 In a hypothetical world, would it be possible to condense light photons into "super-photons" and theoretically pump enough photons in, so that you could create a dense, massive energy source?

Preface: I am not a physicist, and I've just been mulling over some concepts, doing some research, and investigating. If in the following word block, something appears egregiously stupid, it is purely from my lack of training and understanding. My goal is simply to understand, whether in a theoretical or hypothetical sense, if light could be condensed into a gaseous or solid energy source.
After reading John Campbell's 'Black Star Passes' series, he posited a type of super condensed light that could be contained in a gaseous state and used as an energy source for an interplanetary vehicle. This was very dated (I think it was published in '53), but conceptually it intrigued me. In later books, he describes a light "metal" from photons so condensed that they form solid matter. This is what started my musings.
Now, I know that light technically has no mass, as its has zero rest energy. And that in another light, some physicist speak to the relativistic mass that it sort of has, in say, a closed box that light could infinitely reflect in. If you contained the light and weighed the box before and after with a sufficiently sensitive scale, it could add to the weight of the box.
Even in trying to understand the mass of a photon (Googling), it seemed very obvious that this was both ridiculous and even theoretically improbable as its rest mass (which is presently impossible to stop) could never be zero, and even if it did, it would cause issues with other areas of our understanding of physics.
After reading about Lene Hau's experiments in slowing light photons through a cloud of supercooled sodium atoms (down to 20m/s) in a Bose-Einstein condensate, I kept exploring. Martin Weitz and his team at University of Bonn were able to create a "super-photon" at room temperature using two highly reflective mirrors which contained liquid dye. The light, after reaching a critical mass of photons, created a "so-called Bose-Einstein condensate" out of light photons at room temperature.
These two components, combined with gravity's ability to warp space-time, made me wonder. If you could, in some way we are not capable of yet, affect a gravity field of sufficient strength that was able to warp a small, confined space and pump photons into that space, could they theoretically condense into a solid matter? A tangible, particulate gas? If you could contain that matter inside of some type of a field (really sci-fi, but like a warp core reactor--glass case, something flashy), could you siphon bits of it off and use it as an energy source?
There are obviously a million ways to rip this to shred, as we can't create artificial gravity at a focused point or anything, or any of the other physics breaking things that I have mulled over, like massive light photons, but I'd love to hear some people who know more of the nuances of quantum mechanics discuss any hypothetical worlds where this type of energy could be stored and harnessed.
I would also love to hear about the physics challenges that would need to be overcome to even hypothetically approach this type of light containment or condensation. (ex. slowing light in a BEC is only possible in an ultracooled environment to cause atoms like rubidium, helium, sodium to form).
I am sorry, mods, if any of this is off course for discussion, but I couldn't find a better place to ask real physicists who may be open to discussing some of the ins, outs, and possibilities. I understand that this may not meet the standards of scientific integrity, as it requests a lot of broad supposition and speculation, but I sincerely hope this can hang out for a brief dialogue at least. Thanks!
submitted by pr0npr0npr0n01 to AskScienceDiscussion [link] [comments]


2017.03.06 15:14 ReignDropsBlog Conspiracy Theory 2

True or false: science has proven conclusively that the earth is billions of years old.
False.
Almost all of us have grown up being taught that the earth is billions of years old, that we evolved from some lower form such as apes, and that these things are indisputable facts. They are not. In fact, up until the roughly the middle of the 18th century, most people believed the earth to be roughly 6000 years old, just like the Bible states. One such person was Niels Steensen (1638–1686), a famous Danish geologist who established the principle of superposition, which is the theory that rock layers are deposited successively in horizontal fashion. In his book, Forerunner (1669), Steenson expressed belief in a roughly 6,000-year-old earth and that fossil-containing rock layers were deposited during Noah’s flood. Over the next century, several authors, including the English geologist John Woodward (1665–1722) and the German geologist Johann Lehmann (1719–1767), wrote books essentially reinforcing that view. So the old earth view has not always been the principle theory.
Perhaps that’s not so shocking. After all, we have better and more complete scientific methods these days. And yes, that is true enough, but the theories surrounding an old earth predated those methods and the newer technology by hundreds of years. Renowned scientist Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) imagined in his book, Epochs of Nature (1779), that the earth was once like a hot ball of molten material that eventually cooled over a period of about 75,000 years to reach its present state. And Abraham Werner (1749–1817), a popular mineralogy professor in Germany, believed that most of the crust of the earth had been precipitated chemically or mechanically by a slowly receding global ocean over the course of about a million years. Many of the greatest geologists of the 19th century were Werner’s students, who were impacted by his idea of a very long history for the earth. But none of them had access to today’s technology.
So the theory of an old earth is just that, a theory. And while today’s advanced technology is used by some scientists to attempt to prove that theory is true, the fact remains that, since none of us were there to observe conditions when the earth was formed, this technology relies on presupposed ideas in order for the data to be interpreted; and thus we can see that what is often portrayed as indisputable fact is really just an educated guess at what certain data sets might mean. And while old earth theories are still taught as fact, the reality is that those theories have many detractors. Detractors who are every bit as scientifically educated as those who propose the theories, and who are interpreting the very same data.
Obviously this blog doesn’t allow the space to thoroughly examine all the potential assumptions that might influence how scientific data might be interpreted, so for the purpose of highlighting how certain suppositions can affect analysis, we’ll look at three common assumptions associated with one of the more popular methods that supposedly “proves” an old earth: radiometric dating. Radioactive rocks offer a “clock” of sorts in that radioactive atoms (parent isotopes) decay into stable atoms (daughter isotopes) at a measurable rate. The issue with this method comes about due to the fact that, as we noted above, no one was around when the rocks were formed so we have to make assumptions about how they were formed and the conditions that existed at that time. Let’s look a bit closer at these three assumptions:
Assumption 1: Conditions at Time Zero
Because no one was there when rocks formed, it is unknown how many, if any, daughter isotopes existed in the rocks when they were formed. If one assumes no daughter isotopes were present at that point in time, the rocks will appear much older than they really are. Such is often the case when volcanic lava flows from the unobserved past are analyzed. Scientists often just assume none of the daughter atoms (argon-40) were present at formation. But analysis in 1996 of lava rocks from the 1986 Mount St. Helens eruption were found to contain so much argon-40 that modern radiometric dating methods would have estimated their age at 350,000 years.
Similarly, basalt deposited by volcanic eruptions near the north rim of the Grand Canyon were obviously deposited after the canyon was formed, so they are relatively young compared to the canyon itself, but if one uses mistaken assumptions about the amount of daughter isotopes at formation, this basalt yields an age of up to 1,000,000 years. So we can plainly see how assumptions about conditions at time zero can influence interpretation of the data and cause us to have very mistaken results.
Assumption 2: No Contamination
The problem with this assumption is easy to grasp. Rocks are exposed to many sources of contamination such as may occur with water flow during heavy rainfalls, floods, etc. And lava that flows up through conduits from deep within the earth during volcanic activity is likely to pick up pieces of the surrounding rock as it moves through the conduit. All this activity can lead to gains or losses of parent or daughter isotopes, contaminating the analysis completely. Because of such contamination, lava flows from Mt. Ngauruhoe in New Zealand that are known to be less than 50 years old, yield a rubidium-strontium age of 133 million years, a samarium-neodymium age of 197 million years, and a uranium-lead age of 3.9 billion years. As you can see, the magnitude of the potential error is staggering!
Assumption 3: A Constant Decay Rate
Scientists have measured the decay rates of certain parent isotopes in the laboratory for nearly 100 years and have observed constant decay rates. Further, they have not been able to change these decay rates with heat, pressure, or magnetic fields. Based on these results they assume decay rates have remained constant for billions of years. Those familiar with mathematics will recognize the problems with making such an assumption based on data from such a relatively short time span as that of the laboratory testing.
But even more problematic for this assumption is that new evidence more recently discovered can only be explained by decay rates that have changed over time. One such example, the radioactive decay of uranium in tiny crystals in a New Mexico granite, yields a uranium-lead age of 1.5 billion years. Yet the same uranium decay also produced abundant helium, but only 6,000 years’ worth of that helium was found to have leaked out of the tiny crystals. This indicates the uranium must have decayed rapidly over the same 6,000 years that the helium was leaking, more than 250,000 times faster than today’s observed rate.
So we can see with these three assumptions that our interpretation of the observed measurements can be greatly influenced by the lens with which we choose to look. This is hardly pure science, and an old earth is hardly a proven fact. In our system of law, an accused person is presumed innocent unless proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. We see above more than enough evidence to have reasonable doubt about the reliability of radiometric dating methodology. Thus we must not dismiss the possibility the earth is closer to only 6000 years old just as the Bible says.
So why have old earth theories propagated so widely as to be presumed true even when the data is hardly conclusive? One word: rebellion. For ever since the world was created, people have seen the earth and sky. Through everything God made, they can clearly see his invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature. So they have no excuse for not knowing God. Yes, they knew God, but they wouldn’t worship him as God or even give him thanks. And they began to think up foolish ideas of what God was like. As a result, their minds became dark and confused. Claiming to be wise, they instead became utter fools…..They traded the truth about God for a lie. (Romans 1:20-23,25a)
So lay aside rebellion and seek the truth. Jesus said in John 14:6 that he is the truth. If you seek him in earnest right now, I guarantee you will find that his words will ring true and that he will gladly extend his free gift of grace to you. “For this is how God loved the world: He gave his one and only Son, so that everyone who believes in him will not perish but have eternal life.” (John 3:16)
To learn more about the age of the earth: check out the Institute for Creation Research and Answers in Genesis.
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Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright ©1996. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Wheaton, Illinois 60189. All rights reserved.
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2016.12.22 16:18 AutoModerator [Sino Archive] Laser Research

This thread is to share information (and maybe compile some new information) on various topics from the Sino Archive. Something informative to read for casual users. An opportunity to practice pulling/compiling relevant information and sources for advanced users.
This time the topic is on laser research in China, the reference post is https://chinarecentdevelopments.wordpress.com/2016/04/02/laser-research/
Laser Science in China: A rich history of photonics research continues to bear fruit at SIOM
Founded in May 1964, the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has been widely recognized as the most important research center of laser science and technology in China. SIOM is one of approximately 100 institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and its origin lies with the laser research groups of the CAS institutes in Beijing and Changchun, where the first Chinese ruby laser oscillator was demonstrated in 1961.
SIOM has focused on the research and development of high-power laser technology and engineering for decades. In addition to the earlier achievements in the development of high-power laser technologies and facilities for laser fusion experiments, SIOM has developed in recent years the first Chinese multikilojoule laser facility, Shenguang (SG for short and means “magic light” in Mandarin)-II facility. The SG-II laser facility includes eight laser beams (Fig. 1) in two bundles and a multifunctional beam (the ninth beam). The time synchronization among laser beams is within 10 ps root-mean-square (RMS).
SIOM developed the first Chinese petawatt (PW) femtosecond laser facility in 2007 using a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) scheme. This laser system was recently upgraded to 2 PW based on a 100-mm dia. Ti:sapphire amplifier (see Fig. 2),2 which to our knowledge is the highest peak power ever achieved with a laser system. With a newly developed high-contrast broadband front end, the signal-to-noise ratio of the 26 fs long laser pulse was also improved.
The laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) can now produce multi-GeV electron beams on a much smaller scale than the conventional radiofrequency accelerators. Based on the tunnel-ionization-induced injection in the first stage, an all-optical cascaded LWFA with near-GeV quasi-monoenergetic electron beams (QMEBs) was first realized at SIOM.4 The collimated QMEBs with peak energy of ~0.8 GeV are achieved with an acceleration gradient of 187 GV/m.
SIOM has been developing space-borne solid-state lasers and lidar systems since 2001. To date, several lasers were implemented in lidar systems that are now in orbit. The first space-qualified solid-state laser was the transmitter of the laser altimeter on China’s lunar explorer Chang’E-1. This diode-pumped NdCr:YAG laser with pulse energy of 150 mJ at 1064 nm and pulse width of 5 ns was launched in 2007 and operated at 1 Hz repetition rate for ~16 months in orbit.
In recent years, SIOM’s research into cold-atom physics has mainly focused on the application of laser cooling techniques, including Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), atom chips, atom guiding with a radio-frequency field, atom interferometers, and strong coupling plasma physics in cold-atom systems. A rubidium (Rb) BEC was demonstrated in 2002 and a Rb BEC on an atom chip in 2008 (see Fig. 3).
Together with Hoya and Schott, SIOM is one of three global suppliers of large (up to 400 mm clear aperture) Nd-doped laser glass slabs, which are the key active material of high-power laser-fusion drivers. SIOM can provide commercial Nd:glass slabs up to 810 × 460 mm in size with a good wavefront performance (figure error less than 1/3 wavelength).
http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/print/volume-50/issue-05/features/laser-science-in-china-a-rich-history-of-photonics-research-continues-to-bear-fruit-at-siom.html
China launches first ever deep UV laser device
The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has launched a deep ultraviolet (DUV) solid-state laser device, making the country first-ever in the world to possess such technology. CAS President Bai Chunli said that the successful testing of the device suggests the academy’s dedication to major innovation and breakthrough in seeking development.
http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/china-launches-first-ever-deep-uv-laser-device/article5128619.ece
Scientific Innovation and China’s Military Modernization
The Shenguang (Divine Light) laser project explores the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as an alternative approach to attain inertial fusion energy (IFE) – a controllable, sustained nuclear fusion reaction aided by an array of high-powered lasers. The lasers essentially heat and compress pellet-sized targets typically containing two hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium, sending shock waves into the center and releasing energy that heats the surrounding fuel, which may also undergo fusion. Shenguang aims to achieve such “burn” – fusion ignition and plasma burning by 2020, while advancing research in solving the complex technological challenges associated with controlling the nuclear reaction.
http://thediplomat.com/2013/09/scientific-innovation-and-chinas-military-modernization/
China Launches Applicable Deep UV Laser Devices
Eight deep ultraviolet (DUV) solid-state laser devices, invented by scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have recently passed testing, making China the only country in possession of such technology. “This is a successful example of China independently developing a sophisticated scientific instrument”, said the panel who acknowledged the achievement on September 6, 2013. CAS President BAI Chunli said the success embodied the Academy’s “dedication to major innovation and breakthrough in seeking development”. The use of potassium beryllium fluoroborate (KBBF) once bottlenecked the project. KBBF is a non-linear optical crystal that can transform laser light from near IR into DUV for use in solid state lasers. Nonetheless, it is very difficult to cut KBBF crystal along the phase-matching angle because it has a strong layer habit along the c-axis.
http://english.cas.cn/bcas/bcas_1/201401/P020140123609884000035.pdf
Chinese scientists use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to identify toxic cooking ‘gutter oil’
Now scientists led by Professor Ding Hongbin at the Dalian University of Technology, in northeastern China, present a new means to confront this problem. In a study published in the Chinese Science Bulletin, Ding and fellow researchers at the university’s School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering outline the potential use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to rapidly distinguish between “gutter oil” and safe, edible oil. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is used to obtain spectral features of oil samples, which are subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The researchers used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model during the analysis. This provides a new approach to detecting gutter oil efficiently and quickly.
http://www.sciencecodex.com/chinese_scientists_use_laserinduced_breakdown_spectroscopy_to_identify_toxic_cooking_gutter_oil-140308
Chinese Laser Zaps Space, for World Peace
The International Thirty Meter Telescope, based in Mauna Kea, Hawaii, observes the ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths. With adaptive optics and high altitude location, the 30 meter wide optical lens is more than 100 times as sensitive as other existing optical telescopes. The $1 billion telescope is a highlight of international cooperation, with American, Canadian, Chinese, Indian and Japanese scientists all involved in its construction and operation. The Mianyang laser’s critical support role is to provide an accurate reference point in the sky during the telescope’s construction. This laser is certainly an example of Chinese contributions to space science that include space x-ray telescopes and lunar rovers. However, its accuracy and power could theoretically be applied to military purposes, such as anti-satellite and missile defense purposes.
http://www.popsci.com/chinese-laser-zaps-space-world-peace
Laser technique for low-cost self-assembly of nanostructures
Researchers from Swinburne University of Technology and the University of Science and Technology of China have developed a low-cost technique that holds promise for a range of scientific and technological applications. They have combined laser printing and capillary force to build complex, self-assembling microstructures using a technique called laser printing capillary-assisted self-assembly (LPCS).
http://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-news/newsid=40112.php
China Joins the Laser Arms Race
A collaboration between the Academy and Jiuyuan Hi-Tech Equipment Corporation, the Low Altitude Guard I is a 10 kilowatt laser meant to zap low flying drones up to 2 kilometers away. The Low Altitude Guard I’s electro-optical turret can see out to 5 kilometers. Promotional literature brags about its automated fire control– it’s able to identify and track rogue drones so that the operator only needs to press a firing button. The Low Altitude Guard’s small size allows for stealthy placement on high-rise buildings and around critical infrastructure like airports and dams. Lasers are also a cheaper and safer lethal air defense option, especially in urban areas, compared to cannons and missiles.
http://www.popsci.com/china-joins-laser-arms-race
Powerful Lasers Shed Light On Vision
Using one of the brightest X-ray lasers in the world, researchers have determined the structure of a molecular complex that is responsible for regulating the vital physiological functions: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Their research, published in Nature, provide scientists with a new model for major pharmacological drug targets. “GPCRs are major targets in the development of new therapies and account for almost 40 percent of current drug targets”, said Dr. H. Eric Xu, a professor from Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
http://www.asianscientist.com/2015/08/in-the-lab/simm-cas-x-fel-rhodopsin-gpc
Chinese military could soon disable sensors on enemy missiles using suitcase-sized device after ‘groundbreaking’ study on ultrafast lasers
A breakthrough in laser technology may give the Chinese military the ability to blind the sensors on enemy missiles or even satellites using a portable device the size of a suitcase, rather than the large container-sized version typically found on warships. A research team led by Professor Li Zhiyuan with the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Physics reported that they had reduced the sophisticated mechanism that generates a high-frequency laser down to a single piece of crystal.
http://www.scmp.com/tech/science-research/article/1860336/chinese-military-could-soon-disable-sensors-enemy-missiles
submitted by AutoModerator to Sino [link] [comments]


2016.08.08 02:44 BlackGrimoire Introduction Series: Narukami (PART II)

INTRODUCTION SERIES: NARUKAMI (PART II OF II)

Welcome to the 2nd and final part of the Narukami Introduction Series. In this guide I will discuss and provide deckbuilds, explain and compare popular Unit choices, and conclude with general Narukami strategies, from beginner level tips and tricks, all the way to advanced level competitive techniques.
If for any reason you have yet to review PART I of the Narukami Introduction Series, I strongly recommend that you do so before you proceed.
Ready? Let's finish this.

DECKBUILDS

BIG BANG

The Brawlers (喧嘩屋ブロウラー Burourā) made their very first international debut December 19, 2014 in "Legion of Dragons & Blades ver. E" (VGE-BT16). They are primarily a Legion-based subclan, forged upon the battlefield by Big Bang Knuckle Dragon after the untimely fall of the Eradicators.
The Brawlers reintroduce and pay homage to many of Narukami's original characteristics and playstyle, such as cost efficient front row harrassment, on-call intercept denial, and multi-attacking. Despite the impressive variety of Units developed and released since their debut, only one particular deck---Or rather, archetype---within the Brawlers withstood the test of time. That archetype... Was none other than the subclan's founding members: the Big Bang Brawlers themselves.
I will first provide a basic infrastructure of the deck, starting from Grade 0 to 4, explain key Units, areas of flexibility that you may alter to better suit your playstyle (flex spots), and finally explain the overall focus of each Big Bang deck variant (Stride Focus, Legion Focus, & Balanced).
BIG BANG (BALANCED VARIANT):
Grade 0
1x Lizard Soldier, Saishin (Forerunner) (FLEX SPOT)
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
KEY UNITS
Brawler, Big Bang Knuckle Buster
Advantages:
Challenges:
The bigger, badder, Crossride form of Brawler, Big Bang Knuckle Dragon. Like his base form, you may return any 4 cards from your drop zone during your main phase to search for Buster's mate (Slash Buster) and perform Legion. While in Legion, you may at any time during your main phase counterblast a card in your damage zone, and send any card in your hand with "Big Bang Knuckle" in its name to your soul to unleash Knuckle Buster's signature ability. If you do, Knuckle Buster is bestowed with an extra +5000 Power, and gains the ability to attack 4 Units of your choice in one attack.
This ability is ideal for neutralizing your opponent's mid-late game set up before it ever gains momentum, forcing them to weaken their hand (replenish field via call to mount an optimal counter-offensive) and allows you to do something the Narukami as a whole have always had difficulty with: interacting with your opponent's back row. Another uncommon use for his skill is "holding resource hostage". Simply put, you use Knuckle Buster's skill to attack everything you can except for your opponent's Vanguard. If you check a Critical Trigger during your Twin Drive, you can then force you opponent into situations in which they must accept the extra damage if they need the counterblast to take back momentum.
Not only that, his multi-attack provides bonus Power to several of your key Rearguards before you even Twin Drive, depending upon the number of Units you sucessfully hit. Both versions of Big Bang Slash, Kokon, Foot Brawler, Teiroc, and many others can only reach their maximum potential with the use of Knuckle buster's skill.
It is also interesting to note that his multi-attack is essentially a replacement effect, and therefore ignores any opposing skills and/or abilities that say "cannot be choosen/retired, such as the keyword Resist; however, skills that specifically redirect attacks, or prevent attacks from hitting, will negatively affect his ability.
In addition to all of this, if the card you sent to the soul was specifically Brawler, Big Bang Knuckle Dragon, Knuckle Buster's Crossride condition will be fufilled an entire turn in advance (also known as a Superior Crossride), saving you a turn of re-riding and granting him, and any other copy of Knuckle Buster that you ride a permament +2000 Power increase... As long as a copy of Knuckle Dragon remains in the soul.
Knuckle Buster is unquestionably THE cornerstone of any Big Bang deck, and as a result MUST be run at 4. It is from him which all your mid-late game options arise. Without him on your Vanguard Circle, the deck ultimately stumbles over itself trying to catch up to your opponent, and is eventually overwhelmed. It is imperative that you always ride him whenever possible under any circumstance.
Brawler, Skyhowl Dragon
Advantages:
Challenges:
Skyhowl is not only one of the deck's best early game tools, he is also one of its most valuable late game consistency Units. Despite common stats for a Unit of his Grade (9000 Power, 5000 shield), Skyhowl's value is made apparent whenever your opponent presents you with a problematic attacker, or when you are behind on boardstate. As long as you have a Brawler Vanguard, you can counterblast 1 when Skyhowl is called and retire whichever front row Rearguard you desire.
For example, let's say your opponent somehow calls a Grade 3 Rearguard Unit on the turn of their 2nd ride. They then proceed to call a Grade 2 in order to further threaten your Grade 1 Vanguard, including their Vanguard, that's 3 attacks that you may not have had the hand to properly defend against; however, with Skyhowl in hand, you can punish them on your following turn for over committing, and regain dominance of the board in one fell swoop.
In this scenario let's say you could only guard 1 attack, and therefore had to take 2 damage. You can call Skyhowl, retire the Grade 3 since Skyhowl cannot naturally defeat it unboosted, and then proceed to attack their other front row Rearguard... A successful hit completely dismantling their early game offense for just a single counterblast. Providing your 1st starting Vanguard is Saishin and your Vanguard's attack against their Vanguard is successful, that is 3 slain Units for just 2 counterblast and a card from hand. Their set up, offense, intercepts, potential advantage, columns, hand advantage... All of that destroyed with ease.
This ability has no other requirements, so it can be used as early as your 2nd ride onward, and isn't affected by your Vanguard's current state either (Grade 3/Stride/Legion).
Just the possibility of you having this Unit in hand causes a savvy opponent to question rushing you, especially since most Rearguards within the format aren't performing at optional efficiency until Generation Break 1 is achieved. Instilling this fear in your opponent in turn saves you precious resource in hand, allowing you to save Skyhowl himself for a rainy day and set up your mid-late game unimpeded.
Arguably, his most important purpose in the deck is to enable the full potential of your finisher Conquering Supreme Dragon, Conquest Dragon. Skyhowl's skill, used in tandem with Conquest's can all but guarantee you'll recieve maximum Power from Conquest's ACT ability, all the while providing you with another Unit to recieve said Power. It is because of this that I highly recommend that you run a full playset of him.
Secret Fist Brawler, Kokon
Advantages:
Challenges:
For all intents and purposes, Kokon is a clone of Tonfa Brawler, Arc. Their skills function similarly, provide the exact same benefits, and as a result share many of the same advantages/challenges; however, there are a 2 key differences that makes Kokon far and away the superior choice of the two:
Kokon doesn't care which state your Vanguard is in, and Kokon activates when your Vanguard hits.
These small, seemingly trivial exceptions make Kokon absolutely vital to all Big Bang deckbuilds. He doesn't require your Vanguard to be in Legion like Arc does, doesn't care if you are currently in Stride, nor does he mind your Vanguard's current Grade. the only thing Kokon cares about is if your Vanguard's attack is successful.
Did your Vanguard hit that 4000 Power Trigger on Rearguard? Kokon activates. Did your Vanguard hit their Vanguard and their Vanguard's booster? Kokon activates twice. Following this example, you can begin to see why Kokon is regarded as a key card within Big Bang deckbuilds.
He essentially allows you to share the signature ability of your deck's Legion Mates (Slash Dragon/Slash Buster) with any Rearguard in the same column as him. Even if said Rearguard is not a Brawler. This takes some of the responsibility off of you and your Grade 2 line-up, helps you reach magic numbers for almost no effort on your behalf, and helps you in the event that you are left with no attackers. As with all of the other Units discussed within this section, running him at a full 4 copies is strongly advised.

BIG BANG VARIANTS (STRIDE/LEGION)

Stride Focus Variant:
Legion Focus Variant:

VANQUISHER

Dragonic Vanquisher (ドラゴニック・ヴァンキッシャー Doragonikku Vankisshā) made his debut on May 22, 2015, in "Soaring Ascent of Gale & Blossom" (VGE-G-BT02). He is (as of this edition) the latest Narukami Commander released, and as a result of which focuses heavily on both the Stride mechanic, and Narukami's exclusive keyword, Thunderstrike (detailed earlier in PART I). Being both the discerning and battle-hardened warrior that he is, Vanquisher and his subordinates adopt a more clean, tactical approach than their Brawler brethren, which is reflected in everything about his archetype, from their card art all the way to their unique playstyle.
The "Vanquishers" focus on sending their opponent's Rearguards to the Bind Zone after they have been retired, in order to achieve gradually increasing stages of Thunderstrike in preparation for the late game. It is here where the Vanquishers truly unveil their combat potential. It is interesting to note that the Vanquishers are one of the only current Narukami archetypes that can viably run, and make great use of Stand Triggers, as their playstyle (and endgame) is evenly split between the Vanguard and Rearguards.
I will first provide a basic infrastructure of the deck, starting from Grade 0 to 4, explain key Units, areas of flexibility that you may alter to better suit your playstyle (flex spots), and finally explain the overall focus of each Vanquisher deck variant (Critical Focus, Stand Focus, & Balanced).
VANQUISHER (BALANCED VARIANT):
Grade 0
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
KEY UNITS
Demonic Dragon Berserker, Chatura
Advantages:
Challenges:
Chatura is one of the most important Units of the Narukami period, let alone the Vanquisher archetype. His importance, impact, and benefit is only made more apparent when run in a Vanquisher deck.
If you would like a detailed explanation of what makes Chatura such an important card, please read the section devoted to him in PART I (titled "KEY UNITS") of this Guide. Reading this will allow you to understand why he is more valuable in Vanquisher's archetype.
Chain-bolt Dragoon
Advantages:
Challenges:
Chain-bolt Dragoon is a 7000 Power, 5000 shield Grade 1 with a very simple skill. Once per turn, whenever you retire a card via skill, Chain-bolt forces your opponent to bind a card from their drop and bestows another Unit of your choice with an extra +2000 Power. While this might not seem impressive at first glance, you will eventually come to realize that Chain-bolt does more for you than you first assume.
Do you find that one of your columns isn't making your opponent drop much hand? Just retire a Unit. Chain-bolt will turn that 14k column into a 16k at your command.
Your opponent's Crossride rendering your columns ineffective? Just retire on of their Units. The moment you do, that 16k column is now an 18k column.
Your 9k Grade 2 doesn't have enough Power to threaten their Grade 3 Vanguard by itself? Retire. Chain-bolt's skill can easily turn your 9k attacker into an 11k attacker.
For whatever reason, your opponent had just enough guard to stop your 29000 Power column... But due to the extra Power granted by Chain-bolt's skill, your column is now 31000, and they are now forced to take the damage.
What if things aren't going so well? What if you find yourself in the unenviable situation of having a non-scalable Rearguard column? What if you have a 7k Grade 1 in the front row, and a Chain-bolt behind it? That's only 14k. A measly 5k shield demand from your opponent; however, if you can retire a Unit, Chain-bolt will rectify that issue for you by making that 7k a 9k for the turn. 7+7+2 = 16k column. 5k Power Rearguards (Such as Rising Phoenix) get promoted to 7k, 7k Units to 9k, 9k to 11k, 11k to 13k... Starting to see the possibilities now?
With multiple copies, it gets even more insane. With 3 copies of Chain-bolt on field and a "retire-bind" from one of your Units, you can supercharge your Thunderstrike gauge all the way to 4 on your very first Stride turn, enabling Voltechzapper for an additional 2 binds if your opponent's field permits it. That's Thunderstrike 6 at the end of your first stride turn. This doesn't even include the potential binds from your Forerunner or Dragonic Vanquisher's on-Stride skill (assuming everything goes according to plan), so it is easy to see why Chain-bolt is so important to the build. I strongly recommend that you include a full playset (4) of him in any Vanquisher build you finalize on.
Conquering Supreme Dragon, Dragonic Vanquisher "VOLTAGE"
Advantages:
Challenges:
VOLTAGE is the ultimate payoff for all your Unit's hardwork throughout the cardfight, and because of this fact, he is without a doubt the deck's true finisher. He has the same on-hit skill as Zorras, which forces your opponent to retire a Rearguard, and allows you to bind 2 cards from their Drop Zone. He can be used on your 1st Stride if you so chooose, and only requires that you flip a copy of himself face up in the G-Zone to acquire the skill; however, it is VOLTAGE's 2nd skill, his Generation Break 3, that makes him such a force to be reckoned with.
When active, his Generation Break 3 skill bestows your entire Front Row with +3000 Power...
FOR EACH CARD CURRENTLY IN YOUR OPPONENT'S BIND ZONE.
Remember that theoretical Thunderstrike 4 scenario I provided in Chain-bolt's section? Let's explore that scenario further. If your Thunderstrike Gauge is 4, VOLTAGE would bestow everyone on your Front Row with +12000 Power. That alone is objectively superior to Conquest.
What if you sucessfully used Wildrun (+1), Dragonic Vanquisher's on-Stride skill (+1), and had the opportUnity to Stride into Voltechzapper and bind 2 of the Rearguards (+2)? You would be at Thunderstrike 8, and VOLTAGE would give your Front Row +24000 Power before any additional skills or Power from Triggers. Your 16k columns are now 40k columns... And at 5 Damage, your opponent has no choice but to guard.
With a full field and 16k or more across the board, your opponent must now contend with 3 40k-57k+ Power attacks... An 11k Vanguard would have to drop 3 10k shields to just barely survive a Rearguard column. VOLTAGE forces your middle column far into Perfect Guard or die territory, so far in fact, that if your opponent decided to use even the strongest of G-Guardians (25000 shield + 11k Power = 36k), they would still need 25000 more shield (two 10k shields and a 5k or another 25k G-Guardian) for a 1-to-break.
To even stand a chance of guarding all 3 attacks, your opponent needs more than 110,000 Shield Value in hand (or 3 Perfect Guards with cards to pitch) and has to pray that you don't pull any Triggers... Especially any Stand Triggers (such as Dragon Dancer, Vianne). He is arguably THE most important key Unit in a Vanquisher deck and another Unit that I strongly recommend you run a full playset of.

VANQUISHER VARIANTS (CRITICAL FOCUS/STAND FOCUS)

Critical Focus Variant:
Stand Focus Variant:

DRAGONIC KAISER

The Dragonic Kaiser archetype (ドラゴニック・カイザー Doragonikku Kaizā) made its worldwide debut May 19, 2012 in Booster Set 6: Breaker of Limits (VGE-BT06), just after the curtain call of Vanguard's Legacy Era, and the rise of its successor, the Limit Break Era. universally regarded by veteran and beginner alike to be to be the very first in the exclusive line of competitive Narukami builds, the Dragonic Kaiser appellation was first held by the Clan's founding father, and at the time, its most powerful warrior: Dragonic Kaiser Vermillion.
Being the originator of the "Vermillion Thunderbolt" (more commonly known as Multi-Attack), Vermillion and his followers represent the fount from which most if not all of Narukami's core tenets spring.
The Dragonic Kaisers have always held true to one simple focus: extreme Vanguard antagonization. They specialize in mowing down their opponent's frontlines mid-combat in order to focus solely on the Vanguard, and since their release have always had a multitude of ways to leave their opponents offensively crippled. Pressuring the Vanguard and harrassing interceptors is what Narukami was originally about, and that sentiment is expressed in all aspects of Dragonic Kaiser builds, from the Legacy Era builds all the way to the Generation Era. It is from this efficient frontline destruction from which all of the Dragonic Kaiser support unleashes their true potential on the battlefield.
Although many of its core Units are outdated, do not underestimate the sheer power this archetype is still capable of. The Dragonic Kaisers are every bit as competitive as their successors, and reward shrewd and discerning timing of skills above all else, making it a relatively straight-foward deck to use, albeit a difficult one to master. Underestimating them is a mistake many Cardfighters make, yet very few realize before it is far too late to rectify.
I will first provide a basic infrastructure of the deck, starting from Grade 0 to 4, explain key Units, areas of flexibility that you may alter to better suit your playstyle (flex spots), and finally explain the overall focus of each Dragonic Kaiser deck variant (Stride Focus, Legion Focus, & Balanced).
DRAGONIC KAISER (BALANCED VARIANT):
Grade 0
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
KEY UNITS
Dragonic Kaiser Crimson
Advantages:
Challenges:
Dragonic Kaiser Crimson is a Grade 3 Revival Campaign Unit tailor-made for use with Dragonic Kaiser Vermillion, and one of the clan's most powerful Legion Leaders to date.
Crimson's strength lies within his simplicity: As long as Crimson is in both Limit Break and Legion, his skill completely removes the cost of Dragonic Kaiser Vermillion's signature skill, allowing for free Front Row sweeps every single turn. His soulblast skill allows him to single-handedly reach desired breakpoints (in modest increments of +2000), and simultaneously fuel the Drop Zone for Legion, taking some of the burden and responsibility off of your other soulblasting Units. This in turn allows you to selectively remove any card in your soul (such as Malevolent, Crownholder, or Vermillion) in preparation for recycle on your next Crimson ride and Legion activation.
When his maximum potential has been realized (Limit Break + Legion), Crimson begins to synergize quite impressively with your other Units, and enables simple yet efficient pressure plays even without the use of your Strides. Crimson's skill focuses and laser-guides the skill of Voltage Horn Dragon into a "psuedo-targeted" one, trivializes Chatura's attack restriction, enables Crownholder, and allows a few of the clan's under-utilized Units to shine.
He can use Vermillion's specific support as long as he is in Legion, attack the Front Row without a single card in your Damage Zone when used with Eradicator, Egghelm Dracokid, and become the catalyst of a relatively cheap emergency board wipe with Brawler, Fightning Dracokid, provided you didn't exhaust your Counterblasts on the skills of your other Units. But then again, given that Crimson eliminates the costs of Front Row attacks entirely, this shouldn't be too much of an issue.
One of the most under appreciated and overlooked aspects of Crimson is the fact that he has Limit Break printed on his card... Which in turn allows for a surprisingly unique and effective synergy with Heat Elemental, Bwah. A successful Bwah hit on your opponent's Vanguard automatically searches your deck for Crimson (or Vermillion), and simultaneously reduces the amount of cards you need in your Drop Zone to Legion by 1, as Bwah himself is retired if you choose to use his skill.
This eliminates the need for Units such as Spark Kid Dragoon and Storm Bring Dragon entirely, upping your overall ride consistency. Bwah's synergy with Crimson doesn't end there. His skill can be used to dig for Stride or Re-Legion fodder in the mid-to-late game, which automatically pressurizes each and everyone of his attacks, allowing for your other pressure Units (such as Chatura) to completely blindside an opponent focused on denying Bwah's search.
Running a full playset of Crimson is reccomended if not neccessary for this deckbuild to perform outside of Striding; however, if you want to experiment with your ratios (ex. 2 Crimson/2 Vermillion/ 4 ???), Bwah is a tool you must first appropriate space for.
Crownholder Dragon
Advantages:
Challenges:
There really isn't much to say about Crownholder. His effect is simple, straightforward, easy to understand, and even easier to use.
As long as one of your Vanguards with "Kaiser" in its card name hits anything, for each and every hit, Crownholder and another Unit of your choice receive +2000 Power. If Crimson, Vermillion, or any of your Strides hit anything, Crownholder will automatically activate.
He fixes column power, allows unsupported 9ks to threaten Grade 3s, turns 5ks into 7ks---essentially, he provides many of the same advantages Chain-bolt does, minus the Generation Break restriction, "[1/turn]" clause, and ability to Bind of course. The more Crownholders you have on field, the stronger your field becomes. The more Units your Vanguard successfully hits, the more times his skill will activate. Again, very, very simple, and very, very effective.
Running 4 of him is highly recommended, and his amount should only be reduced to 3 if you wish to make room for Units such as Egghelm, or utility Units such as Rising Phoenix.
Conquering Supreme Dragon, Dragonic Kaiser Warning
Advantages:
Challenges:
"Simplicity" is a term you will find throughout the entirety of the Dragonic Kaiser deckbuild section. Seeing it so many times in each and every subsection of the archetype may lead you to not to expect much of them when compared to the Vanquishers or the Brawlers; however, it is this very emphasis on simplicity that makes the Dragonic Kaisers so powerful in the first place.
Conquering Supreme Dragon, Dragonic Kaiser Warning is the embodiment of this clear design philosophy, and ultimately the culmination of the 1st Era of Narukami.
During your Main Phase, as long as you have achieved Generation Break 2 and you have a "Kaiser" Heart, you may Counterblast 1 and flip a copy of Warning face-up in your G-Zone. The moment that you do, the true potential and power of the deck can finally be realized. Activating this skill will cause Warning to multi-attack your opponent's Front Row, and bestow +5000 Power to any two Rearguards of your choice for each and every individual hit.
For example, this means, that if Warning hits your opponent's Vanguard, he will bestow any 2 of your Rearguards with +5000 Power each.
If he hits their Vanguard and one of their Rearguards, he bestows +20,000 Power divided amongst 4 rearguards...
If Warning successfully hits the entire Front Row, Warning will distribute a whopping +30,000 Power amongst any other Unit on your field, in any which you you so choose (15k on each Front Row, 30k in one column, 5k to everyone, etc.)
That is akin to checking 6 Triggers in a row on top of any actual Triggers you might check during your Triple Drive. This terrifying power fluctuation does not include the massive amounts of power multiple copies of Crownholder Dragon gave you from those Warning hits. Most cardfighters tend to doubt the lethality of this archtype... Until they are face to face with a weakened hand and 46-51,000+ Power Rearguard lanes. Or in very rare occasions, one nigh-unstoppable rearguard column of 72,000+ Power (again, not including Triggers).
Timing is everything with Warning. You only have 2 shots with him, so each and every useage must be absolutely neccessary if you are to prevail. You must consider your opponent's current damage, the immediate state of their front row and your field, the condition of their hand, all while calculating the "Risk/Reward" of going for game... As several things could go wrong and potentially cost you the game.
For example, Gold Paladin has access to Golden Beast, Sleimy Flare, a G-Guardian that can send their Rearguards back to the deck before Warning can hit them, immediately robbing you of 33% of your power and momentum. Bermuda has Leona, Gear Chronicle has Raphanna, Kagero's Denial Griffin doesn't care if you hit or not, as the Rearguard you empowered with Warning will be burnt to a crisp the moment they attack, and finally, the ever prevalent Dizmel just outright prevents them from being hit.
While all variants of Narukami have varying degrees of difficulty with these Units, this disadvantage is exacerbated and made much more severe in Dragonic Kaisers simply because of the way they function. There are a multitude of other Units that also hold the potential to ruin your Warning turns; however, if you focus your build, and your game on eliminating these threats, Warning will surely be able to finish the job.
You just have to make sure nothing and no one stops him from doing so.
Stride Focus Variant:
Legion Focus Variant:

I've taught you all you need to know.

Now get out there, and show all who stand before you the power of the Narukami.

submitted by BlackGrimoire to cardfightvanguard [link] [comments]


2016.04.20 15:24 Ohsin PSLV-C33 : IRNSS-1G Mission Updates and Discussion.

IRNSS-1G was launched successfully. Updates on spacecraft will continue. Catch the replay of launch
Launch is currently scheduled for 28 April 2016, 1250(IST)/0720(UTC) from First Launch Pad of SDSC (SHAR).
Live webcast:(Links will be added when available)
Official Links: PSLV C33 Mission Page PSLV C33/IRNSS-1G Gallery PSLV C33/IRNSS-1G Brochure[PDF]
IRNSS-1G seventh and last satellite of Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System after a delay from previous March 31 date is ready for its launch. This would be 35th flight of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and 13th one in 'XL' or Extended Length configuration. IRNSS-1G would complete the operational fleet of IRNSS-1A,1B,1C,1D,1E and 1F.
IRNSS-1G will be put into Sub-Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit with Apogee x Perigee of 20657x284km, at inclination of 17.86°.
Updates:
Time Update
18 May 2016 IRNSS 1G Orbital Period: 23h56m Inclination: 5.06 Apogee X Perigee: 35797 X 35774 km
16 May 2016 IRNSS 1G Orbital Period: 23h55m50s Inclination: 5.05 Apogee X Perigee: 35822 X 35741 km
13 May 2016 IRNSS 1G Orbital Period: 23h55m44s Inclination: 5.0 Apogee X Perigee: 35810 X 35749 km
11 May 2016 IRNSS-1G Orbital Period: 23h57m11s Inclination: 5.02 Apogee X Perigee: 35854 X 35762 km
9 May 2016 IRNSS-1G Orbital Period: 23h50m, Inclination: 5.00, Apogee X Perigee: 35845 X 35508 km
Post Launch Orbit Determination results from fourth LAM firing. Apogee X Perigee: 35811 X 35211 km. Inclination: 5.1 deg. Orbital period: 23h42m04s
Post Launch The fourth and the final LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 231sec has been successfully completed on 03.05.2016 starting from 01:27hr IST
Post Launch Orbit Determination results after third LAM firing: Apogee X Perigee: 35813 X 29050km, Inclination: 5.72deg. Orbital period: 21h08m09s
Post Launch Third LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, for 1609sec has been successfully completed on 01.05.2016 starting from 06:59:07 hr IST.
Post Launch Orbit Determination results from second LAM firing are: Apogee X Perigee: 35803 X 7750 km, Inclination:10.77deg. Orbital period:13h03m35s
Post Launch Second LAM firing of IRNSS-1G, at apogee for 1581 sec has been successfully completed on April 30, 2016 starting from 04:52:17 hrs IST.
Post Launch The first apogee raise maneuver of IRNSS-1G has been successfully carried out for 1147 sec from 13:05 hrs IST on April 29,2016. Apogee X Perigee : 35903 X 317.74 km. Inclination:17.86 deg. Orbital period : 10h35m
Post Launch Press Release:IRNSS-1G was injected into an elliptical orbit of 283 km X 20,718 km inclined at 17.867°. Solar panels of IRNSS-1G were deployed automatically. ISRO's Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan, Karnataka took over the control of the satellite.
Post Launch IRNSS to be known as 'Navic'
T + 20m IRNSS-1G separation confirmed. PSLV C33 declared success :)
T + 19m PS4 Cut Off! Injection parameters achieved.
T + 16m PS4 performance normal.
T + 14m Cut off is 5min away.
T + 13m PS4 performance normal.
T + 11m PS3 separated! PS4 Ignited.
T + 9m Brunei station acquiring signal.
T + 8m Combined coasting is going fine.
T + 6m PS3 burn out!
T + 5m Third Stage performing nominally.
T + 4m PS2 separated PS3 Ignited.
T + 3m PS2 performing nominally and Heat Shield Separated.
T + 2m First stage separated, Second stage ignited.
T + 1m32s Airlit strapons separated
T + 1m10s Groundlit Strapons separated!
T + 30s Airlit strapons Ignited!
T zero Lift Off!
T - 2m ALS going through system checks.
T - 5m Weather too damn sunny! But all go for launch
T - 12m Automatic Launch Sequence should be fully engaged now.
T - 14m Automatic Launch Sequence initiated.
T - 15m Board looks green. All clear for launch. Mission Director authorized the launch.
T - 17m 'The Key' is in view :)
T - 20m Mr Ganeshan giving an IRNSS overview
T - 22m Vehicle going through checkout operations.
T - 25m Isro official stream is live as well. Playing informational movie at the moment.
T - 36m Youtube stream is Live!
T - 2h Real Time simulation & Data transmission checks completed. Vehicle Internal Checks Completed.
T-2h30m Propellant (N2O4 and UH25) filling operations of Second Stage (PS2) are completed. Countdown is progressing normally.
T-5h Youtube stream by Ministry of Information & Broadcasting is up.
T-17h30m Mobile Service Tower(MST) withdrawal to parking End is completed.
T - 23h Countdown operations are progressing normally. Preparations for Mobile Service Tower (MST) withdrawal and Propellant filling operation of second stage (PS2) are in progress.
T - 40h MON-3 filling operations completed.
T - 47h MMH propellant filling operation has been completed. Preparations for Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON-3) oxidiser filling operation of PS4 are under progress.
T - 48h Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) propellant filling operation of fourth stage (PS4) is under process
T - 51h30m Counting down.
25 April 2016 Mission Readiness Review cleared the launch.
20 April 2016 PSLV-C33 / IRNSS-1G Launch Scheduled on 28 April 2016, 1250(IST) / 0720(UTC)
Payload:
IRNSS-1G is similar in configuration to other satellites in constellation.
  • Attitude control is done using reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and 22N thrusters.
  • Rubidium atomic clock, L5 & S-band Navigation payload
  • Corner Cube Retro Reflectors (for laser ranging) and C band transponders as Ranging Payload
Gross weight: 1430 kg.
Orbit: 129.5°E GSO with 5° inclination
Mission Life: 10 years
Propulsion: 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor and Twelve 22 Newton Thrusters
Power: Two solar panels generating 1660 W.
Edit (28 August 2017):
IRNSS-1G had slightly different configuration compared to other IRNSS spacecrafts. Corner Cube Retro Reflector is absent and in place of Global horn there is a 3 panel phased array antenna.
submitted by Ohsin to ISRO [link] [comments]


2015.04.25 04:57 olimlah Richard G. Scott knows for sure that the earth is not 7k years old... What's up with that?

So I didn't know this until today, but apparently Richard G. Scott is a newquewler nuclear engineer. So he absolutely has to know about half-lives of radioactive materials. Rubidium-strontium dating will put the earth at more than 3 billion years old and uranium-lead dating can be used, and verified, to date fossils (including hominids) that are more recent.
I always excuse my early-naivete because I was rube with a public school education from Payson, Utah as the reason I didn't learn about this stuff until I went to college. But what's his excuse? How can he preach the bible/book of mormon with that kind of understanding? Once I got an education, the shelf broke pretty quick (thank FSM) but how can he not face the facts?
Money? Power? Fear? What's the motivator here to deny the stuff he knows, and can experimentally prove?
P.S. Seriously, isn't it funny how your typing skills degrade with a shot or two of a Friday-night dose of 12-year old scotch? This took me 10 minutes to write with all the 'backspacing' and deleting - LOL.
submitted by olimlah to exmormon [link] [comments]


2014.08.14 15:24 graphophobius Another bad writing example from an essay mill via EssayScam.org

Hey Folks,
I ordered this paper from an essay mill (essaythinker.net) advertised on a site that claims to expose essay scams (EssayScam.org). I'm still trying to sort out what is going on at EssayScam. I do know directly that some of the forum members involved are legitimate, however it is not always clear whether the actual site owners and moderators are on the up and up.
At any rate, the following is what happens when you order an "essay" from one of these supposedly legit writing services. There's a lot that can be said regarding the quality of this supposed essay, but I'd rather just let others draw their own conclusions.
RAGIOGENIC ISOTOPES IN GEOLOGICAL AGES AND DATES
Name 13th August 2014
Geochemistry
Most fields in modern science are making quite breath taking breakthroughs in solving various day-to-day problems encountered by every human being directly at any point in their lives. Most of these are expected to make life a lot easier and improving the standards of living for an average human being. Science can be deemed to directly engage many fields of study and occupation one of them being Geology, which is the scientific study of the earth, and rocks that it is comprised of. Geology does not only include the study of the earth but also all celestial bodies such as the moon and the stars . The following field of science usually gives proof to the existence of not readily or accessible features of the earth such as plate tectonics, their mechanisms and effects at various instances. The following paper will major on processes contributing to the rise of the geologic timescale that is the history of the earth.
In geology, radiogenic isotopes are the magic in date determination of discovered artifacts, earth features and long hidden civilizations. Such isotopes have grown into becoming a very important tool in the study of natural processes making research very diversified and successful in the respective areas of application. Isotopic methods have evolved from bedrock dating to application in forensics and even environmental studies. Because of this breakthrough, lots of information has grown over the last years through studies involving stable and radiogenic isotopes.
Radiogenic isotopes are unstable and radioactive isotopes. Through a decaying process, the radiogenic isotope usually morphs to another nuclide in a pre-defined series. These isotopes can be categorized into long-lived and short-lived isotopes according to the time they take to decay. They also have different half-lives where by definition a half-life denoted by T1/2 is the time during which 50%of the respective isotope decays to produce another isotope called the daughter isotope . These two categories of radiogenic isotopes have different implications for their usage in scientific research. Long-lived isotopes for example Uranium 238 decays to Lead 206 with a half-life of 4468 million years are well suited for determining time in old geological systems with time spans bracketed by billions of years ago. Contrary, short-lived radiogenic isotopes like Lead 210 with a half-life of roughly 22 years are relevant in short dating of geological processes. Having these facts makes geology use radiogenic isotopes in providing an absolute age and origin of a sample.
The decay of 87Rb to 87Sr when placed in biotite can be a good illustration of the age concept . In this case, biotite is used since it has a tendency of incorporating significant amounts of rubidium and at the same time excluding Sr in its lattice during crystallization. Rubidium occurs mainly in two isotopes which are 87Rb and 85Rb. 87Rb decays to 87Sr with a half-life of around 48.8 billion years . The mentioned decay process follows an exponential law similar to that of an hourglass that is, the sand in the upper part represents the parent 87Rb isotope and is passing down to the lower part, which is the daughter 87Sr isotope in a controlled rate, described as linear relationship. The decaying in this illustration is the sand passing down from the upper part of the hourglass to the lower part in a period of time in this instance being an hour. The time taken for full displacement of sand from one part to the other can be approximated by comparing proportions of the remaining upper sand fraction with that of the lower fraction . Similarly, the ratio between the radiogenic ally formed 87Sr isotope and the remaining 87Rb in the biotite at time of analyses can be compared to each other by means of mass spectrometry which would be proportional to the time taken for the biotite crystallization.
t = 1/λx ln (87Sr /87Rb + 1) λ being that for the 87Rb to 87Sr decay process. Thus, the ratio of the daughteparent isotope increasing with time saying the age of the biotite is increasing.
Some of the dating methods are: 1. Uranium-lead dating method 2. Samarium-neodymium dating method 3. Potassium-argon dating method 4. Rubidium-strontium dating method 5. Uranium-thorium dating method 6. Radiocarbon dating method 7. Fission track dating method 8. Chlorine-36 dating method 9. Luminescence dating methods
Bibliography
Faure, Gunter, and Teresa M. Mensing. Isotopes: principles and applications. John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2005.
Derry, Louis A., Alan J. Kaufman, and Stein B. Jacobsen. "Sedimentary cycling and environmental change in the Late Proterozoic: evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, no. 3 (1992): 1317-1329.
James, David E. "The combined use of oxygen and radiogenic isotopes as indicators of crustal contamination." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 9 (1981): 311.
Frank, Martin. "Radiogenic isotopes: tracers of past ocean circulation and erosional input." Reviews of Geophysics 40, no. 1 (2002): 1-1.
Stern, Richard A. "High-resolution SIMS determination of radiogenic trace-isotope ratios in minerals." Modern approaches to ore and environmental mineralogy. Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series 27 (1998): 241-268.
Kyser, T. Kurtis. "Stable isotopes in the continental lithospheric mantle."Continental mantle 2, no. 3C (1990): 127.
Banner, Jay L. "Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy." Earth-Science Reviews 65, no. 3 (2004): 141-194.
Hawkesworth, C. J., and P. W. C. Van Calsteren. "Radiogenic isotopes-some geological applications." In Rare earth element geochemistry. 1984.
Armstrong, R. L., and R. S. Harmon. "Radiogenic isotopes: the case for crustal recycling on a near-steady-state no-continental-growth Earth [and discussion]."Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 301, no. 1461 (1981): 443-472.
Appelo, C. Anthony J., and Dieke Postma. Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. CRC Press, 2005.
Footnotes
1 Gunter Faure, and Teresa M. Mensing. Isotopes: principles and applications. John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2005.
2 Martin Frank. "Radiogenic isotopes: tracers of past ocean circulation and erosional input." Reviews of Geophysics 40, no. 1 (2002): 1-1.
3 Jay L Banner. "Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy." Earth-Science Reviews 65, no. 3 (2004): 141-194.
4 David E James. "The combined use of oxygen and radiogenic isotopes as indicators of crustal contamination." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 9 (1981): 311.
5 Louis A. Derry, Alan J. Kaufman, and Stein B. Jacobsen. "Sedimentary cycling and environmental change in the Late Proterozoic: evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, no. 3 (1992): 1317-1329.
submitted by graphophobius to AcademicGhostwriting [link] [comments]


2014.02.05 18:09 Bounds Creationism/Evolution debates are a symptom of a deeper disagreement.

One of the key moments of last night's debate was Bill Nye's explanation of rubidium-strontium dating. Every so often, a rubidium atom will lose one of its electrons, causing one of the neutrons to become a proton. By observing this process many times, we can determine how often it occurs. With this knowledge, we can look at a given sample of rock with rubidium and strontium in it, and determine how long that process has been going on.
Ken Ham responded to this point specifically with three slides, saying that this relies on the assumptions that A) we know how much rubidium was in a sample to begin with, B) that the decay of the rubidium is what created the strotium, rather than some unrelated process, and C), that the decay rates we observe today are the same as they were in the past. In short, "you don't know because you weren't there."
This debate is about the role that reason has to play in human affairs.
How do we come to know something? Ken Ham's response, whether he realizes it or not, is that our senses are the only path to knowledge. If nobody was there to observe rubidium decaying, perhaps it decayed at a different rate. Perhaps some other process placed the rubidium there with no other discernible effects. I'm willing to admit that those things are within the realm of possibility.
The problem with this sort of thinking is that it makes the world incomprehensible to us. Ham argues that dinosaurs could not have predated the Fall of man because we have found brain cancer cells in fossils, and we know that God called everything "very good," and that "God does not call brain cancer very good." Yet by Ham's own standard, we cannot assume that these cancerous cells had a negative effect on the dinosaur's brain. Perhaps cancer operated differently back then. We don't know because we weren't there.
Similarly, in the Hamian sense, I do not know that turning the key in the ignition of the car will cause it to start, or that the peanut butter in my pantry has not turned into a poison which looks and tastes exactly like peanut butter, or that my dinner table wasn't replaced half a dozen times overnight by pixies. Ham laments the assumptions that scientists make, but a creature as limited as a human being has to make a dozen assumptions before he puts his pants on in the morning.
There is another way of knowing what is true, and that is our ability to reason. Reason does not preserve us from making mistakes, but, if we are to live as rational creatures instead of by instinct or emotion, we have an obligation to follow the dictates of reason. The call to live according to reason is a call to be moral, for certainly all sin is irrational. Reason is grounded in a love of the truth, and God is truth itself. To the extent that we abandon reason, we turn our backs on God.
I wish I could assure Mr. Ham that he can have his cake and eat it too. God did create the universe, all life, every human person and soul, and sustains all of existence from moment to moment. In his infinite wisdom and mercy, God has done this in a way that we can comprehend.
TL;DR: The length of this post disproves YEC, because it would take more than 6000 years to read it.
submitted by Bounds to Christianity [link] [comments]


2012.06.26 07:52 Dragonai BREAKING: Rubidium MDO explosion at Rockwell [0148 EST]

I'm currently on-site, in the middle of a meeting with Camille and Fabio from Oscillation Testing at Rockwell. Huge offshore explosion just a few minutes ago, looks like their primary Magnetic Deuteron Oscillator is burning down. Quick photo from my phone http://i.imgur.com/vwQvh.jpg
Utter chaos here right now. Will provide updates as soon as I get them.
Update @ 0203: Things are looking grim. Apparently they've ruled out any possibility of a ferrocore meltdown. Fabio says the two remaining possibilities are a Ganis malfunction or intentional sabotage.
Update @ 0205: Crappy phone picture from someone on one of the evac boats http://i.imgur.com/UGYkP.jpg
Update @ 0211: Emergency internal information release going around, had to dig this out of my currently-flooding inbox:
Date: Tue, 26 June 2012 02:10:24 -0500 From: "[CR#0002] Damien Crawley"  To: [email protected] Subject: Offshore MDO Emergency Unforeseen offshore explosion at 1:48 AM EST. Magnetic Deuteron Oscillator #1 has suffered a significant rubidium loss and as of 2:10 AM EST is declared unstable and offline. Crisis Response Task Force is currently enabling hazard containment contingency and handling the detritus. Manufacturing halted. We are uncertain about resuming production but will keep the Development Group and all affiliated parties updated as per Crisis Code 3, S. 1. 
Update @ 0324: Atmospheric heat levels are escalating. Response teams going insane. Having a hard time getting cell signal right now due to flooded airwaves, will provide any critical updates.
submitted by Dragonai to VXJunkies [link] [comments]


fetrug - YouTube K-Ar dating calculation  Life on earth and in the ... Uranium-Lead Dating - YouTube Uranium-lead dating

The Rubidium-Strontium Dating Method - Creationism Online

  1. fetrug - YouTube
  2. K-Ar dating calculation Life on earth and in the ...
  3. Uranium-Lead Dating - YouTube
  4. Uranium-lead dating
  5. Uranium-thorium dating
  6. Answers to YEC Arguments - YouTube
  7. Dating With Rabidium 'FlipitPhysics' solution

Answers to YEC Arguments - Episode 44 - Rubidium-Strontium Dating by Sentinel Apologetics. 3:47. Answers to YEC Arguments - Episode 45 - Potassium-Argon Dating However, use of a single decay scheme (usually 238U to 206Pb) leads to the U--Pb isochron dating method, analogous to the rubidium-strontium dating method. Finally, ages can also be determined ... Uranium-thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique commonly used to determine the age of ... Samarium-neodymium Potassium-argon Argon-argon Rubidium-strontium Iodine-xenon Lanthanum-barium Rhenium-osmium Are all these dating methods false? Creationists have a lot of problems when it comes ... Radiometric Dating: Carbon-14 and Uranium-238 - Duration: 6:07. Professor Dave Explains 11,964 views. 6:07. Decay scheme of K-Ar, U-Pb and Sm-Nd, petrogenetic implications-part A - Duration: 33:33. Working through a calculation for K-Ar dating (good to have some prior experience with e and logarithms). Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https:/... This feature is not available right now. Please try again later.